Immune safety assays
Cytokine release assays (CRA)
Concept Life Sciences offers a science-led optimization approach for your test substance in determining the most suitable CRA format before performing a screen in a larger donor cohort.
- New molecular entities may induce infusion reactions and in turn, lead to cytokine release syndrome (CRS) characterized by a broad inflammatory response and adverse reactions.
- Following the TeGenero TGN1412 FIH trial that led to 6 volunteers suffering multi-organ failure1, the FDA issued draft guidance on Nonclinical Safety Evaluation of the Immunotoxic Potential of Drugs and Biologics (Feb 2020).
- There are multiple protocols to test Human cell-based in vitro assays to detect harmful cytokine release and each needs optimizing for each Test Substance2
- Need to identify the most sensitive model of detection of cytokine release and optimize protocol.
- BMJ 2006;332:677 - Learning from the TGN1412 trial
- Findlay, Eastwood, Ball et al. 2011; Comparison of novel methods for predicting the risk of pro-inflammatory clinical infusion reactions during monoclonal antibody therapy. Journal of Immunological Methods, 371, 134-142
Science-led approach - optimization
Our tailored and customized approach ensures a robust experimental design to provide a strong data package and address your scientific questions.
- Two methods of Test Substance exposure to the biological sample (PBMCs and Whole Blood) are assessed – wet coated onto a plate or applied in aqueous phase.
- 44 groups for optimization including reference controls Lemtrada® (Alemtuzumab) and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) known to cause cytokine storm in patients.
- Th1/Th2 cytokine release profiles are measured using the Multiplex Luminex platform. An exemplar cytokine panel includes GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNFα.
Methods of data analysis
For each sample replicate the fold change over vehicle control is calculated, a 2-fold change over vehicle control is considered as relevant. The percentage of responding donors can also be calculated and compared to relevant reference controls.
Using standard assay reference control, Lemtrada® and LPS induce a consistent and widespread cytokine release effect across the donor cohort.
How our cytokine release assay is performed
|1. Peripheral blood samples from multiple donors are used to ensure genetic diversity.||2. Test and control compounds are prepared to required concentrations and applied wet coated onto assay plates or used in aqueous phase; diluted blood is then added and plates are incubated for 1, 6 or 24 hrs.|
|3. Test substances interact with their specific cellular targets leading to the release of cytokines from activated immune cells.||4. Assay plates are spun down and supernatants are used to measure a panel of cytokines such as GMCSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNFα using the MSD technology.|
|5. Data are analyzed and displayed in a series of convenient formats such as heatmaps, bar graphs and dot plots to provide a quick overview of cytokine responses across different donors or to determine the population of responders vs non-responders for individual treatments and cytokine.|