This course is intended for users with some knowledge of crystallography and materials science, preferably experienced with Malvern Panalytical XRD systems. The course covers basic principles and practical aspects of X-ray reflectometry as well as high-resolution XRD techniques for the analysis of heteroepitaxial layers on Empyrean or X’Pert³ MRD system. To help you to get the best possible result out of your analysis, emphasis is placed on selecting the most appropriate hardware and data collection strategies to match your sample. Epitaxy, Smoothfit and Reflectivity software will be used to analyze the rocking curves, diffraction space maps and reflectivity curves collected. Simulation of semiconductor structures will be explained.

As a participant you are encouraged to bring with you one or two of your characteristic samples (together with the corresponding safety data sheet).

The main aspects covered during the course are the following:

• Basic principles of X-ray Reflectometry and High-resolution XRD

• Hardware components and their impact on data quality

• Practical aspects of sample alignment procedure and data collection (Reflectivity curves, Diffuse scattering, Rocking curves, Reciprocal space maps)

• Efficient use of line detectors for reciprocal space mapping

• Extracting information from Reflectivity curves: Layer thicknesses using Reflectivity

• Coherence parallel to interface from diffuse scattering

• Extracting information from Rocking curves: Calculating heteroepitaxial layer mismatch, composition and thickness; Calculating periods for superlattices; Calculating relaxation

• Extracting information from reciprocal space maps: Information from peak shapes; Determining layer unit cell dimensions; Studying relaxation in pseudomorphic systems