Many industrially crystallized compounds are obtained by nucleation and growth from solution. To fully understand crystallization processes, the parameters that influence the yield and stability of a desired crystalline form (solvents, concentrations, pH, stirrer geometry and speed, reactor geometry, temperature, pressure, etc.) are of particular interest. In this presentation, we show examples of the use of a slurry flow cell in research-scale experiments to prove the excellent suitability of the X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) for in situ crystallization studies.
The slurry flow cell is integrated in a laboratory XRD system, and in combination with modern detection systems allows the real-time monitoring and analysis of crystal growth mechanisms from the early stages of nucleation and polymorphic phase transformation during the crystallization process. Using the same experimental setup, it is also possible to perform Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of early crystallization stages for nanoparticle size distribution and specific surface area.