The definition of controlled substances may vary across region and country boundaries, but generally includes Narcotics, Narcotic-Precursors, Steroids and designated Clandestine Laboratory Reagents. As controlled substances evolve (e.g. designer drugs) they often complicate analytical determination, often containing both organic and inorganic materials and possibly similar molecular weights and structures. The international organization SWGDRUG recently recommended XRD as a primary technique for controlled substance identification. Advantages of the XRD technique include, significantly reduced sample preparation, limited or no risk of cross contamination and rapid throughput. Furthermore, as a non-destructive technique it is possible to use additional phase and structural information to gather extensive material intelligence aiding in the identification of trafficking activities. This presentation is an abbreviated summary of work carried out in partnership with the Drug Analysis Services Branch of Health Canada and focuses on Narcotic analysis using modern XRD instrumentation equipped with advanced optics.