A previous paper portrayed sample preparation by fusion methodology and the X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry analytical conditions for the calibration of cement materials[1]. Experiments were conducted according to the guidelines of two well-known cement chemical analysis International Standard Methods and results were presented. The results proved that this robust analytical method is able to qualify by the ASTM C 114[2] and ISO/DIS 29581-2[3] norms.  

This analytical method was developed using a Claisse® M4TM fluxer, an automated fusion instrument for the sample preparation and a Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometer, for the determination of all the elements of interest relating to the cement industry. The method was used to prepare finished products, process materials, as well as a very large range of raw materials which will be described in this second paper. Cement, blended cement, cement with additions, aluminate cement, clinker, kiln feed, raw mix, limestone, gypsum, sand, clay, bauxite, silica fume, slag, fly ash and iron ore are among the raw materials covered by this analytical application. This sample preparation was also transferred and optimized for TheOx® fluxer, a fully electric fusion instrument, by executing a robust validation of the method’s performance.

Due to the fact that powders are affected by mineralogy and particle size effects[4, 5], it is almost impossible to use a single XRF calibration curve for the analysis of such a wide range of different materials using the pressed powder preparation method. When fused in a borate glass, all mineralogy and particle size effects are eliminated. A single XRF calibration curve covering the whole range of concentrations for all elements of interests for the cement industry raw materials analysis can be made.

This paper examines all the XRF analytical conditions for the calibration of the entire range of raw materials using the robust borate fusion sample preparation methodology as well as the numerous Reference Materials (RMs) used for this analytical application. The results of this general and unique XRF raw materials calibration will also be presented in terms of precision, accuracy, and limit of detection.

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