Ultrasound, cavitation, and the singing kettle

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00:00:00 Untitled
00:00:39 Ultrasound, cavitation and the singing kettle
00:00:46 Abstract
00:01:07 What is ultrasound?
00:02:04 So why does a kettle make noise as the water comes to a boil?
00:02:41 Theme developed by Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt)
00:03:18 Lord Rayleigh
00:03:51 Sir William Bragg
00:04:19 And developed in 1991…
00:04:48 Another problem
00:06:03 “HMS Daring” - The fastest ship of its day - 1893
00:06:25 Parsons
00:07:01 Barnaby
00:07:27 Cavitation damage and cavitating propeller
00:08:03 Torpedo-Boat Destroyers
00:08:37 An aside….
00:09:24 Lord Stokes’ review of Reynolds’ paper
00:09:29 Further review
00:10:08 Ultrasonic baths and probes and what they do
00:11:18 Expectations?
00:12:16 Types of ultrasonic bath – Santos et al
00:13:19 The ‘sweet spot’ in an ultrasonic bathFrom Santos et al
00:14:17 Probe shapesSantos et al
00:14:50 Probe shapesSonic Systems
00:15:40 Santos et alEffect of dissolved gases
00:16:33 Effect of shape of probeSantos et al
00:17:05 Effect of temperature on cavitation
00:17:49 The warmer the temperature the smaller the effectNew Scientist 2 May 1963
00:18:22 Multiple probesAdapted from Santos et al
00:18:48 Hugo Miguel Santos, Carlos Lodeiro, José-Luis Capelo-Martínez Chapter 1 “The Power of Ultrasound” in “Ultrasound in Chemistry: Analytical Applications” Edited by José-Luis Capelo-Martínez WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co (2009) ISBN: 978-3-527-31934-3
00:19:39 The energy released in bubble collapseLord Rayleigh
00:20:01 Sonoluminescence
00:20:27 Sonoluminescence
00:20:32 K R Weniger, B P Barber, S J Putterman “Pulsed Mie Scattering Measurements of the Collapse of a Sonoluminescing Bubble” Physical Review Letters 78(9) 1799 – 1802 (3 March 1997)
00:20:46 Grieser’s group
00:21:08 Speed of collapsing bubbleFaster than Mach 4……..1011g
00:21:40 Radius of collapsing bubble
00:22:03 Strength of adhesion
00:22:47 K S Suslick “The Chemical Effects of Ultrasound” Scientific American, 80-86, (February 1989)
00:23:13 6-20-13 Simulation of cavitation bubble collapse - YouTube
00:23:34 6-20-13 Simulation of cavitation bubble collapse - YouTube
00:24:04 The energy released in bubble collapseS J Doicrycz, K S Suslick “Interparticle Collisions Driven by Ultrasound” Science Vol. 247 1067-1069 (2nd March, 1990)
00:24:58 The temperature of cavitation E B Flint, K S Suslick Science 20 September 1991 1397-1399
00:25:21 J Bałdygaa, Ł Makowskia, W Orciucha, C Sauterb, H P Schuchmann “Agglomerate dispersion in cavitating flows” 13th European Conference on Mixing London, (14-17 April 2009)
00:25:50 Can we expect damage for small material?
00:26:29 Why?
00:27:01 How can we check?
00:28:05 Can we measure the delivered power?
00:28:47 European programSee: http://tinyurl.com/bvgqjyf
00:29:10 Background
00:29:53 So, how much did this program cost taxpayers?
00:30:12 Air again…
00:30:44 Transfer of energy into systemWe’ve dealt with this in the earlier SlideData....
00:31:43 Energy input
00:32:43 The Malvern units
00:33:20 Mastersizer Transducers
00:33:35 Speeding up the dispersion process: Schott glass
00:34:04 Direct Power Measurement3-ways
00:34:33 Heating effect
00:34:56 Direct Power Measurement
00:35:17 National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK
00:35:34 National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK
00:36:11 National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK
00:36:47 What do I need to think about and define before I even attempt a particle size measurement?
00:37:28 A more efficient way?
00:38:05 Wet - theoretical and practical plots
00:39:06 Development of SOP - wet
00:39:43 Microsilica – sonication to stability
00:40:18 Untitled
00:40:38 MicrosilicaExcel
00:41:01 References
00:41:41 ASTM
00:41:56 General text
00:42:19 Summary
00:43:15 Thank you!
00:43:52 Contact Information
This presentation deals with the application of ultrasound energy frequently used to 'disperse' powdered samples in suspension and with the difficulties of specifying the absolute energy input in such systems.