XRF | X-ray fluorescence

X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy & XRF applications

What is X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)?

X-ray fluorescence is an analytical technique that can be used to determine the chemical composition of a wide variety of sample types including solids, liquids, slurries and loose powders. XRF is also used to determine the thickness and composition of layers and coatings. It can analyze elements from beryllium (Be) to uranium (U) in concentration ranges from 100 wt% to sub-ppm levels.

What are the benefits of XRF analysis?

XRF analysis is a robust technique, combining high precision and accuracy with straightforward, fast sample preparation. It can be readily automated for use in high-throughput industrial environments, plus XRF provides both qualitative and quantitative information on a sample. Easy combination of this ‘what?’ and ‘how much?’ information also makes rapid screening (semi-quantitative) analysis possible.

XRF Principle

XRF is an atomic emission method, similar in this respect to optical emission spectroscopy (OES), ICP and neutron activation analysis (gamma spectroscopy). Such methods measure the wavelength and intensity of ‘light’ (X-rays in this case) emitted by energized atoms in the sample. In XRF, irradiation by a primary X-ray beam from an X-ray tube, causes emission of fluorescent X-rays with discrete energies characteristic of the elements present in the sample. 

Determination of elemental composition

The technology used for the separation (dispersion), identification and intensity measurement of a sample’s X-ray fluorescence spectrum gives rise to two main types of spectrometer: wavelength dispersive (WDXRF) and energy dispersive (EDXRF) systems.

XRF analyzers

We offer a wide range of X-ray Fluorescence solutions and XRF spectrometers for the analysis of elemental composition of a wide range of materials and applications, and comprising both Wavelength and Energy Dispersive solutions. For more information on XRF analyzer prices, read our how much does an XRF analyzer cost page. Or discover our solution portfolio in the table below:



Smart Zetium for reliable results and robust operation

More details
Epsilon range

Epsilon range

Fast and accurate at- and on-line elemental analysis

More details
Axios FAST

Axios FAST

XRF of choice for highest throughput or shortest measurement time

More details
2830 ZT

2830 ZT

Advanced semiconductor thin film metrology solution

More details
More details More details More details More details
Measurement type
Thin film metrology
Elemental analysis
Contaminant detection and analysis
Elemental quantification
Chemical identification
Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF)
Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF)
Elemental range Be-Am F-Am B-Am B-Am
LLD 0.1 ppm - 100% 1 ppm - 100% 0.1 ppm - 100% 0.1 ppm - 100%
Resolution (Mn-Ka) 35eV 145eV 35eV 35eV
Sample throughput Up to - 240per 8h day Up to - 160per 8h day Up to - 480per 8h day up to 25 wafers per hour