The relationship between particle size, shape and particle entry to the lungs

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00:00:00 The relationship between particle size, shape and particle entry to the lungs
00:01:51 The relationship between particle size, shape and particle entry to the lungs
00:02:09 Overview
00:03:06 Abstract
00:03:31 “Dust to Dust” – opening obligatory quotation
00:04:13 Leonardo da Vinci – good guy?
00:05:01 The needle-pointing industry
00:05:57 J H Abrahams Magnetic shard removal
00:06:49 Mr. A Westcott Transactions of the Royal Society Vol XLII (1823-1824)
00:07:50 M Bailey et al Proposed Updating of the ICRP Human Respiratory Tract Model
00:09:09 History
00:10:35 Task Group on Lung Dynamics
00:11:24 The 1966 model From: B O Stuart “Deposition and Clearance of Inhaled Particles” Environmental Health Perspectives, 55, 369 - 390 (1984)
00:11:51 Prediction of deposition Task Group on Lung Dynamics (1966)
00:13:20 Standard graph – Norman Davies Faber and Faber (1954) “Dust is Dangerous”
00:14:09 Chiu-sen Wang “A brief history of respiratory deposition modeling” Chapter 15 in Ensor (Editor)
00:14:58 What are the factors influencing where particulates are deposited?
00:16:47 Deposition of particles in the lungs
00:16:59 Interception
00:17:48 Impaction
00:19:12 Impaction
00:20:04 Sedimentation
00:21:00 Terminal velocity
00:21:45 Diffusion
00:22:32 Diffusion coefficient
00:23:21 Brownian motion and sedimentation
00:24:11 Standard graph – adapted from Clive Washington Particle Size Analysis In Pharmaceutics And Other Industries: Theory And Practice Ellis Horwood (1992)
00:24:57 Standard Graph – Form 3
00:25:53 Issue 1…
00:26:47 Issue 2
00:28:03 Issue 3
00:29:13 Adhesion forces - dry milling Theoretical limit of a ball mill
00:29:57 Aerodynamic diameter
00:30:52 O G Raabe “Aerosol Aerodynamic Size Conventions For Inertial Sampler Calibration” Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 26(9), 856 – 860, (September 1976)
00:31:21 Fuller picture
00:31:46 It’s all about flow in a fluid stream…
00:32:42 C N Davies – 3 figures
00:33:17 Overview of last slide
00:33:43 W E Cooke “Fibrosis of the lungs due to inhalation of asbestos dust” The British Medical Journal 147 – 148 (July 26th, 1924)
00:34:36 Nellie Kershaw
00:35:00 So long thin particles can penetrate the lungs
00:35:33 Why can 400mm long particles get in? The length is not so important – it’s the cross-sectional area that counts
00:36:46 Classic shape parameters need understanding
00:37:53 Sturm
00:38:36 R Sturm, W Hofmann “A computer program for the simulation of fiber deposition in the human respiratory tract” Computers in Biology and Medicine, 36, 1252–1267, (2006)
00:39:08 Brian H Kaye A Random Walk Through Fractal Dimensions VCH page 102 (1989)
00:39:42 Respirability
00:40:29 The Onion September 11, 1996 - September 17, 1996 Issue 30•05
00:40:44 Growth in size with moisture
00:42:01 Ensor Chapter 2 Friedlander, S. K., & Hidy, G. M. (1969). New concepts in aerosol size spectrum theory. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Condensation and Ice Nuclei. Prague: Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences
00:42:21 Smoking (No smoke without fear?) Harry S Truman “ Columbus brought syphilis to the Indians and they gave him tobacco. It is doubtful which is worse” Quoted in: Alton Ochsner “Smoking and Health” 5th Printing Julian Messner Inc., (1962) page 81
00:43:37 Industrial Maladies
00:44:28 Anthrax
00:45:43 Silicosis
00:46:58 Cigarettes and asbestos
00:47:31 Therapeutic aerosols
00:48:12 Dry Powder Inhaler Formulation Martin J Telko and Anthony J Hickey
00:48:56 What techniques do we have to measure some of the key parameters? Another webinar……
00:49:33 The Future
00:50:20 Untitled
00:51:09 References
00:52:16 C N Davies – everything!
00:53:32 Charles Norman Davies
00:53:57 Saliva – “Dust is Dangerous” C N Davies Faber and Faber (1954) Facing page 89 So is saliva… After the webinar?
00:54:18 Thank you!
00:55:15 Contact Information
Industrial diseases such as silicosis and asbestosis, the dangers of smoking as well as therapeutic drug inhalation products are fundamentally tied to the particle size and shape of the particles that can enter the lungs.