The Kinetics Guide | Binding kinetics with the WAVE system. Download now

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No-clog microfluidic sensor chip for every need

The innovative design of our patented microfluidic cartridge supports crude samples, pathogenic samples, harsh solvents, and large particles up to 1000 nm normally only achieved with plate-based assays. The WAVEchips are uniquely designed for the WAVEsystem.

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Measure the toughest samples

The innovative fluidics design integrates all the microfluidics into the disposable cartridge (not within the device core) and places large bore standard valves downstream in the instrument instead of having microvalves near the chip. 

By combining the microfluidics and optical biosensor in a single disposable cartridge, WAVEsystem, a Creoptix technology, offers crude-sample robustness normally only achieved with plate-based assays. Compatible sample types include 100% serum or plasma, cell lysates, crude membranes preparations, large drug targets, virus-like particles (VLPs), liposomes, and aggregates (fibrils) without clogging risk.

The chemical-friendly cartridge also makes it amenable to work with high concentrations of DMSO, acetonitrile, and other organic solvents typical of fragment libraries, and viscous detergents allowing exploration of solubilization and purification conditions for membrane proteins. And because the cartridges are self-contained and disposable, they eliminate cross-contamination protecting your samples and ensuring more reliable data.

No Microvalves for Fast Transitions

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The cartridge design enables ultra-fast transition times of 150 msec for reliable determination of off-rates of 10 sec–1 (half-life of 69 ms), enabling the kinetic study of weakly binding fragments.

No-Clog for Crude Samples

No-clog microfluidics accommodates a broad range of sample types to preserve activity and biological context, saving time from detrimental purification steps and clogging that takes other systems offline.

By combining the patented Grating-Coupled Interferometry (GCI) technology with no-clog microfluidics, the Creoptix® WAVEsystem deliver high quality data from even the most challenging sample types and achieve superior resolution in signal and time compared to other forms of label-free quantification. Label-free ligand immobilization is typically achieved by covalently coupling the ligand to the biosensor via naturally-occurring amine (-NH2), thiol (-SH2) or aldehyde (-COOH) groups, or through ligand attachment to an antibody that has itself been covalently attached to the biosensor surface. Maintaining samples in native configuration and physiological conditions reduces the risk of protein inactivation or denaturation, ensuring the raw data generated is a faithful depiction of kinetic activity. 

WAVEchip Compatibility

WAVEchip sensor Sensor surface matrix Immobilization modality Suggested applications
PCP Quasi-planar PC hydrogel Amine coupling Large ligands and/or analytes such as proteo-/liposomes, viruses, VLPs
PCP-STA Pre-immobilized streptavidin
Quasi-planar PC hydrogel
Biotin Large biotinylated ligands, analytes such as liposomes, viruses, VLPs
PCP-RST Regenerable streptavidin surface
Quasi-planar PC hydrogel
Biotin Large biotinylated ligands, ligand screening
PCP-PAG Pre-immobilized fusion protein A/G
Quasi-planar PC hydrogel
IgG For capturing the broadest range of IgG and FC-tagged proteins
PCP-NTA Pre-immobilized NTA
Quasi-planar PC hydrogel
His-Tag Large His-tagged ligands, analytes such as liposomes, viruses, VLPs
PCP-LIP Pre-immobilized lipophilic groups
Quasi-planar PC hydrogel
Lipid Hydrophobic (large) ligands such as liposomes, membrane vesicles
PCZ Functionalized with a zwitterionic polymer bearing carboxylic acids and tertiary amines in similar densities, quasi-planar PC hydrogel Amine coupling Low fouling, ideal for coupling proteins with low isoelectric points or polyanionic ligands
PCL Low capacity, thick PC hydrogel with a lower amount of negative charges (approx. 25%) Amine coupling Complex matrices such as serum, culture supernatant. Requires sulfo-NHS for activation
PCH Thick PC hydrogel Amine coupling Large ligand-to-analyte molecular weight ratio, general purpose
PCH-NTA Pre-immobilized NTA
Thick PC hydrogel
His-Tag His-tagged ligands, general purpose
PCH-STA Pre-immobilized streptavidin
Thick hydrogel
Biotin Biotinylated ligands, general purpose
PCH-RST Regenerable streptavidin surface
Thick hydrogel
Biotin Biotinylated ligands, ligand screening
DXP Quasi-planar DX hydrogel Amine coupling Large ligands and/or analytes such as proteo-/liposomes, viruses, VLPs
DXH-STA Pre-immobilized streptavidin
Thick DX hydrogel
Biotin Biotinylated ligands, general purpose
DXH Thick DX hydrogel Amine coupling Large ligand-to-analyte molecular weight ratio, general purpose
PC- = polycarboxylate, DX- = Carboxymethyldextran.
DX coated sensors available upon request

Frequently asked questions

What are WAVEchips® compatible with?
  • 100% Serum & plasma & cell supernatant
  • Non-traditional solvents, including high percentages of acetonitrile and DMSO
  • Viscous detergents and additives to solubilize membrane proteins
  • Cell membrane preps, partially solubilized, unpurified material
  • Virus-like particles (VLPs), liposomes, or nanodiscs used as solubilization structures
  • Large binding partners: nanoparticles and crude membrane preps
How often can I use the WAVEchips?
This depends on the type of WAVEchip®, the immobilization method used, and the behavior of the immobilized ligand. For example, His-tagged ligand proteins captured on a Ni-NTA surface can be regenerated by EDTA and the ligand freshly re-captured multiple times. This means that such a chip can generally be used repeatedly, provided it remains inserted in the WAVEsystem. Regenerations are possible with both Ni-NTA and Protein A/G chips, allowing for multiple uses, however this is not easily accomplished with streptavidin or other chips.
How much ligand can you immobilize on the chips?
The immobilization capacity depends on the chip type and immobilization method. The highest capacity chip in the WAVEsystem portfolio, the 4PCH WAVEchip, can immobilize up to 35,000 pg/mm2 of BSA, but the experimental capacity depends on the exact ligand used. The WAVEcontrol software has a built-in simulator that helps determine the ligand density required for an acceptable theoretical response.