Duration: 01 hours 04 minutes 40 seconds

Thresholding, dilation, erosion, reporting - these are some of the terms used in image analysis. We'll explain some of the mathematics used in converting an image into size and shape information.
1. Welcome
01:41
2. The math(ematics) of image analysis
00:12
3. Abstract
00:52
4. Agenda
00:27
5. Most important questions – the big picture
02:02
6. O2Q
00:46
7. The ‘smaller’ picture
01:32
8. Basic principles of image analysis
00:43
9. Before the analysis – taking the sample
00:57
10. Taking a (hopefully representative?) sampleHopelessly unrepresentative?
02:37
11. The sample
00:39
12. Image Analysis – basics and expanded from CarltonFull reference later
00:28
13. Image acquisition – the key part
01:44
14. Eric Pirard Personal communication October 5th, 2010: 06:21 AM
00:57
15. Resolution - Definition
00:38
16. Lower limit - diffraction
00:33
17. Numerical Aperture (N.A.)
00:14
18. Limits of resolution
00:52
19. Limits of resolution
00:45
20. Untitled
00:36
21. Heywood’s warning
01:01
22. Defeating the Abbe limit
00:25
23. Nobel Prize in Chemistry - 2014
00:25
24. Possibilities and Limitations
00:37
25. Magnification
00:41
26. Depth of field
00:38
27. Depth of field
00:33
28. Depth of field
00:26
29. Focus
00:58
30. Object extraction
00:36
31. Image J – simple example
00:30
32. Isolation of image from background – 256 levels
00:30
33. Noise removal
00:52
34. Binarization
00:41
35. Variable background – Image J
00:33
36. Variable background
00:44
37. Digitization – care! From ISO 9276-6Pixel resolution and 16:9 display…
01:08
38. Particle orientation with respect to x- and y-axes
01:13
39. Edge and perimeter isolation: 8-neighbor
00:24
40. Thresholding
01:08
41. Object Extraction - Thresholding
00:57
42. Thresholding
00:31
43. Erosion-dilation
01:01
44. Hole filling
00:57
45. How do we count the number of particles?
00:51
46. De-agglomeration – in software!Processing (Erosion-Dilation)Post-processing (Circularity)
01:02
47. Original image (10MB picture)
00:31
48. Decide which part of the image to analyze
00:36
49. Extract the sample
00:16
50. Process 1 – negative imageGrey scale (256 levels)
00:16
51. Digitize (2 colors)
00:08
52. Process 1 – negative imageGrey scale (256 levels)
00:04
53. Digitize (2 colors)
00:06
54. The original and processed image overlaid
00:38
55. ImageJ – jpeg warning (page 57 of manual)
00:30
56. What have we lost?
00:18
57. The lost tree (increasing brightness and contrast)
00:18
58. Note these ‘particles’ – appear as an aggregateLet’s carefully examine the original 10 MB photograph
00:44
59. Threshold – automatic setting
00:28
60. Threshold
00:20
61. Threshold
00:25
62. Process the data (1269 particles) – automatic threshold: using 1 mm/pixel for convenience
00:30
63. Lots of data per particle Size and shape on the same plot
00:24
64. Threshold 25 (359 particles)
00:41
65. Compare threshold results for 1269 and 359 particles Number distribution
00:17
66. Shape information – aspect ratio - distribution
00:29
67. Circularity - distribution
00:10
68. The Tetris effect – take care when you’re at the lower limit (low numbers of pixels/small particles)
01:00
69. So what does that give us?
00:09
70. So, we have binary, digitized images of particlesPost-processing – generation of shape parameters
00:34
71. And this leads to these image analysis parameters….G Yamate, J D Stockham “Sizing particles using the microscope” Chapter 3 of J D Stockham, E G Fochtman (Eds.) Particle Size Analysis Ann Arbor Science Publishers Inc (1977) ISBN: 0 250 40189 4
00:22
72. A couple of common parameters
00:38
73. Area-volume
00:16
74. Post processing – the results – 2-D descriptorsAdditional complexity – and distributions….
00:22
75. International Standards – documentaryWhere are the materials standards?
00:11
76. ISO9276-6
00:04
77. ISO9276-6
00:32
78. ASTM F1877 - 05(2010)
00:26
79. We’ll end with Heywood’s warning
00:20
80. References
00:40
81. References
00:22
82. Past (relevant?) webinars
00:47
83. Thank you!
00:50
84. Thank you for your attentionAny questions?
08:45
85. Contact Information
01:36