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"Albedo, the ratio of incoming to reflected solar radiation, plays an important role in climate by regulating the amount of shortwave radiation reflected or absorbed and subsequently reradiated as longwave radiation by a surface.” (Burakowski et al., 2015). Albedo changes are related to light scattering which is caused by changes in particle (crystal size) packing density and foreign materials such as algae or dust on the snow; these things impact the melt rate and can be an indicator of snow/water equivalent, which is important for reservoir management.. .

Products:
ASD range
Date:
April 18 2018
Language:
English
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The value of Full-Range Spectroradiometers for measuring Solar Spectral Energy:. Many climate and surface energy balance studies involve monitoring the direct, diffuse and total components of solar spectral irradiance as they relate to the Earth’s atmosphere and surface (ASD Inc., n.d.).Outdoors, the primary source of spectral irradiance is the sun. The diffuse radiation from the sky is found primarily in the visible and UV portions of the spectrum (ASD Inc., 2012).“Because the solar radiation on the sun-surface-sensor path in the 0.4–2.5 μm visible and near-IR spectral regions is subject to absorption and scattering by atmospheric gases and aerosols, hyperspectral imaging data contains atmospheric effects. In order to use hyperspectral imaging data for quantitative remote sensing of land surfaces and ocean color, the atmospheric effects must be removed.” (Gao et al., 2009)“Atmospheric turbidity generally inhibits reliable measures of vegetation and sometimes renders atmosphere-induced variations on canopy spectra to exceed those due to vegetation development. These effects make the accurate and quantitative translation of [vegetation indices] more difficult and complicated.“ (Gao et al., 2000)“The illumination and appearance of the solar/skydome is critical for many applications in computer graphics, computer vision, and daylighting studies. Unfortunately, physically accurate measurements of this rapidly changing illumination source are difficult to achieve, but necessary for the development of accurate physically-based sky illumination models and comparison studies of existing simulation models.” (Kider et al., 2014)“Radiance is normally obtained in the field by nadir measurement of specific ground targets, with incoming solar irradiance spectra typically acquired from coincident measurement of reflected energy flux from reference panels with known spectral and angular scattering properties.” (Peddle et al., 2001)

Products:
ASD range
Date:
April 18 2018
Language:
English
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The value of Full-Range Spectrometers for Petrology:. "Spectra, like human fingerprints, can be used to search for materials with a similar spectrum and to investigate the composition of the material.""Diffusive spectral reflectance (DSR) has been successfully used as a geologic tool to identify mineral phases in rocks and sediments. The method is non-destructive, fast, and relatively inexpensive.""Scattering properties are wavelength-dependent and can vary significantly over the VIS-NIR spectral range. In particular, the phase function of a granular material is affected by both the absorptivity and the external and internal structure of the grains, from the millimeter scale down to the wavelength scale.""Reflectance spectroscopy can yield valuable information on metamorphic intensity in rocks containing white mica, particularly in low-grade sequences where conventional indicators of metamorphic grade are lacking. Futhermore, the information can be obtained with field-portable spectrometer."

Products:
ASD range
Date:
April 18 2018
Language:
English
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Energy in the 21st Century Application Note

When will the Demand for Energy exceed the Conventional Supply?.

Products:
ASD range
Date:
April 17 2018
Language:
English
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Earth Observing Satellites Application Note

A chart of earth observing satellites with technical specifications, including:. NameOperator/CountryLaunch/End DateSensor TypeSpectral ResolutionSpatial (m)Radiometric (bit)Swath (km)Revisit (days)

Products:
ASD range
Date:
April 17 2018
Language:
English
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Caused by oil pollution and waterlogging using spectral and thermal remote sensing.

Products:
ASD range
Date:
April 17 2018
Language:
English
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Corn stover is regarded as the prime candidate feedstock material forcommercial biomass conversion in the United States. Variations in chemical composition of Zea mays cell walls can obviously affect biomass conversion process yields and economics. Mutant lines were constructed by activating a Mu transposon system. The cell wall chemical composition of 48 mutant families was characterized using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. NIR data were analyzed using a multivariate statistical analysis technique called Principal Component Analysis (PCA). PCA of the NIR data from 349 maize leaf samples reveals 57 individuals as outliers on one or more of six Principal Components (PCs) at the 95% confidence interval. Of these, 19 individuals from 16 families are outliers on either PC3 (9% of the variation) or PC6 (1% of the variation), the two PCs that contain information about cell wall polymers. Those individuals for which altered cell wall chemistry is confirmed with wet chemical analysis will then be subjected to fermentation analysis to determine whether or not biomass conversion process kinetics, yields and/or economics are significantly affected. Those mutants that provide indications for a decrease in process cost will be pursued further to identify the gene(s) responsible for the observed changes in cell wall composition and associated changes in process economics. These geneswill eventually be incorporated into maize breeding programs directed at the development of a truly dual use crop..

Products:
ASD range
Date:
April 17 2018
Language:
English
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CLAMS OverviewField campaign sponsored by CERES, MISR, MODIS-Atmospheres and the NASA/GEWEX Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP).. Chesapeake Lighthouse sea platform 20 km east of Virginia Beach, at which NASA and NOAA make continuous, long-term measurements of radiation, meteorology, and ocean waves.. Common set of objectives tied to the validation of EOS data products.. A first CLAMS campaign, currently being planned for July 2001 to validate Terra data products, is a shortwave closure experiment. A second and similar campaign is being considered for 2002 for Aqua data product validation with additional focus in the longwave and on atmospheric water vapor..

Products:
ASD range
Date:
April 17 2018
Language:
English
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CLAMS is a aircraft field campaign that is planned for summer 2001 at the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) site – a rigid sea platform 20 km east of Virginia Beach. CLAMS is a clear-sky, shortwave (SW) closure campaign sponsored by CERES, MISR, MODIS-Atmospheres, and GACP. It seeks more accurate.

Products:
ASD range
Date:
April 17 2018
Language:
English
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CLAMS is a aircraft field campaign that is planned for summer 2001 at the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) site – a rigid sea platform 20 km east of Virginia Beach. CLAMS is a clear-sky, shortwave (SW) closure campaign sponsored by CERES, MISR, MODIS-Atmospheres, and GACP..

Products:
ASD range
Date:
April 17 2018
Language:
English
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Measurements of coastal, offshore and deep ocean brdf were made (15 total; 8 uncontaminated by cloud) under a variety of sun angles and wind conditions for MODIS, CERES and MISR. Charles K. Gatebe. Goddard Earth Sciences and Technological Center (GESTC) University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC). On behalf of Cloud Retrieval Group: Michael King, Steve Platnick, Tom Arnold, Mark Gray, Charles Gatebe, Eric Moody, Paul Hubanks, and Jerome Riedi. Outline. Overview of the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR)Summary of CAR Measurements for CLAMSConclusion and acknowledgments

Products:
ASD range
Date:
April 17 2018
Language:
English
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This study is to determine if NIR is a useful tool to determine various properties of bread and cake flour. Specifically, the intent is to determine Protein (ds), Softness (avg.), Volume (avg.) and Moisture (%) properties.. A LabSpec® 4 with a wavelength range of 350 to 2500 nm and a contact probe were used for this study. The LabSpec 4 system features three modular spectrometers, each collecting a portion of the entire wavelength range. The contact probe is designed for contact measurements of solid raw materials such as minerals, grains, and other granular materials. .

Products:
ASD range
Date:
April 17 2018
Language:
English
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Forests are a natural resource of major economic significance to Canada and many other countries. For example, Atlantic Canada forest industries exported over $3.9 billion in wood products and had a direct employment of 37,900 persons in 2003. Secondary and value added products, particularly that of Canadian northern bleached softwood kraft market pulps represent revenues reaching $7.5 billion in 2007. Canada leads the world in wood pulp exports. In addition to direct employment, the industry has an indirect effect through demand for goods and services and diversifies income sources for many communities.. More recently, wood is recognized as a renewable resource and can sequester CO2. There is increasing emphasis on using wood for energy, bio-fuels and bio-chemicals production. Timely knowledge of wood characteristics is essential to ensure that the right fiber is directed to the appropriate wood manufacturing company at the right time and right cost to produce the right product.. Agenda 2020 has identified that a number of key variables that need to be measured accurately along the wood processing, from trees to logs to lumber and to secondary processing such as pulp and paper products. Measurements of wood and processing parameters will allow process monitoring and control, leading to consistent high product quality at minimal costs and energy consumption.. Reflectance spectroscopy, particularly visible-NIR spectroscopy, has shown much promise as an adaptable technology that would meet the requirements for fast, non-contact, and process capable as online and at-line analysers for monitoring wood and wood products properties. This paper will discuss the application of reflectance spectroscopy for measurements of standing tree wood properties, lumber properties during sawmilling operation, OSB flake properties and its use in panel production, and other pulp and paper applications. The paper will focus on adapting reflectance spectroscopy for on-line and at-line measurements for 24/7 operations..

Products:
ASD range
Date:
April 17 2018
Language:
English
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Mineral physics dictates the appearance of rocks and soils across the electromagnetic spectrum. In the Visible/Near-Infrared (VNIR) and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR), many materials absorb radiation at specific wavelengths, allowing their identification by the position and character of absorption features. Electronic processes at wavelengths less ~1.0 micrometers allow identification of minerals containing Fe+3. Molecular vibrational features at wavelengths between ~1.0 and 2.5 micrometers are diagnostic of minerals containing anion groups such as Al-OH, Mg-OH, Fe-OH, Si-OH, CO3, NH4, and SO4. Small differences in absorption band position and shape are correlated with mineral compositional differences and variability. Imaging spectrometry has been used since the early 1980s to perform 2-dimensional mapping of mineral distribution based on spectroscopic characteristics. Geologic applications include areas such as lithologic mapping; exploration for precious and base metals; and oil, gas, and geothermal energy exploration. Field spectroscopy plays a critical role in the calibration, analysis, and validation of imaging spectrometer data. Spectral libraries have been measured for a variety of minerals. Imaging spectrometer datasets have been acquired around the world using airborne platforms and recent satellite systems provide spectral measurements for selected areas. Case histories will be presented demonstrating the link between laboratory, field, and imaging spectrometer data. Selected physics-based analysis methodologies will be discussed and the level of information available from the data will be demonstrated. Examples will include mineral identification and mapping in the context of hydrothermal alteration associated with active and fossil hot springs and mineral deposits. Specific mineral mapping examples will include hematite, goethite, and jarosite in the VNIR and identification and separation of calcite, dolomite, and calc-silicates along with phyllosilicates and sulfate minerals such as alunite and jaorsite using SWIR spectroscopy. Spectral variability caused by processes such as anion substitution in illite/muscovite, crystallinity in kaolinite-group minerals, and spectral mixing will also be discussed.

Products:
ASD range
Date:
April 17 2018
Language:
English
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Cement is the key component of the concrete structures we see and use every day, from our cities and roads, to every bridge and every home. Cement manufacture is both expensive and energy intensive: energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total manufacturing costs, with electrical energy accounting for a significant proportion of this – historically estimated to be 1% of the world’s electrical energy (circa 1966). However, electricity usage for cement manufacture has steadily been overtaken by that used to power the world’s data centres, which store the vast amounts of data generated over the internet. Whether you’re ‘liking’ something on Facebook, streaming the latest Tarantino movie, or posting an Instagram picture from the pub, every internet activity involves huge amounts of data that needs to be stored somewhere. And as the ‘internet of everything’ brings innovations, such as driverless cars and high-definition video watches, ever closer, the vast network of data centres that have sprung up in the past decade will spread. Already, data centres have mushroomed from virtually nothing 10 years ago to consume about 3% of the global electricity supply, accounting for about 2% of total greenhouse gas emissions..

Products:
Insitec Dry
Date:
April 11 2018
Language:
English
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This manual is for users of the QualitySpec Trek instrument and describes how to set up and use the instrument, as well as how to use Trek Manager, the computer-based software that supports Trek and makes it easy to configure the Trek instrument, sync spectral data off the instrument, and organize projects before going into the field. .

Products:
ASD QualitySpec range
Date:
April 6 2018
Language:
English
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This manual is for users of the QualitySpec Trek instrument and describes how to set up and use the instrument, as well as how to use Trek Manager, the computer-based software that supports Trek and makes it easy to configure the Trek instrument, sync spectral data off the instrument, and organize projects before going into the field.

Products:
ASD QualitySpec range
Date:
April 6 2018
Language:
English
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This manual is for users of the QualitySpec Trek instrument and describes how to set up and use the instrument, as well as how to use Trek Manager, the computer-based software that supports Trek and makes it easy to configure the Trek instrument, sync spectral data off the instrument, and organize projects before going into the field. .

Products:
ASD QualitySpec range
Date:
April 6 2018
Language:
English
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Ce manuel est destiné aux utilisateurs de l’instrument TerraSpec® Halo et explique comment configurer et utiliser l’appareil, et comment utiliser le logiciel Halo Manager..

Products:
ASD TerraSpec range
Date:
April 6 2018
Language:
Spanish
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Ce manuel est destiné aux utilisateurs de l’instrument TerraSpec® Halo et explique comment configurer et utiliser l’appareil, et comment utiliser le logiciel Halo Manager..

Products:
ASD TerraSpec range
Date:
April 6 2018
Language:
Spanish
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