Interested in improving your geological sciences, minerals, and mining knowledge with our analytical solutions? Whether you’re a student, a researcher, or a professor, we’ve got a wide range of useful articles on our most relevant application examples for:

  • Exploration
  • Fossil fuels
  • Mineralogy
  • Minerals processing
  • Mining research solutions


The materials researched and the analytical equipment used often overlap with Agriculture and Food Sciences, and Environmental and Climate Science, - so check out those pages for more information! Method abbreviations are explained at the bottom of this page.

Exploration

Exploration is at the heart of geological science research. This research focuses on surveying and prospecting for minerals and materials. Geoscience, also known as Earth science, focuses on exploring and studying how the Earth and its materials work and evolve. Take a look below to find out how our analytical instruments can support you with this!

Exploration

Method

Sample

Application Note Title (Link)

Base metal mineralization - mineral distributions

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Base metal mineralization in The Great Basin of the Western United States (Seminal paper, basis for our ASD work in mining)

Reflectance Spectroscopy Applied to Exploration for Mineral Deposits and Geothermal Systems

Bauxite - exploration

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Bauxite, gibbsite Al(OH)3, boehmite γ-AlO(OH), and diaspore α-AlO(OH) with iron oxides
goethite and hematite, plus kaolinite clay and small amounts of titanium dioxide

Overview of NIR in Bauxite Exploration and Mining

Chlorite minerals - identification

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

White micas, chlorite group minerals. (Discussion of Halo and scalars from Halo)

Automated reflectance spectroscopy for deposit recovery - SEG 2014 poster

Drill core and cuttings mineralogy - mineral composition

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Clay Minerals, silicates, Zeolites, opal, calcite, and iron oxide (geothermal project)

Rapid Characterization of Drill Core and Cutting Mineralogy using Infrared Spectroscopy

Geochronology - mineral composition

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

U/Pb geochronological investigations of the western Avalon Zone, Newfoundland

Late Neoproterozoic epithermal alteration and mineralization in the western Avalon Zone: A summary of mineralogical investigations and new U/Pb geochronological results

Mapping mineral deposits - absorption signatures

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Mineral deposits in Newfoundland and Labrador

Visible/Infrared Spectroscopy (VIRS) as a Research Tool in Economic Geology: Background and Pilot Studies from Newfoundland and Labrador

Mineral mapping – ground-truthing

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Copper ore, oil shale, and pulp manufacturing

Remote Sensing from 700km: Challenges and Potential

Mineralogy - mineral deposits

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Mineral deposits

Unveiling Mineralogical Information in Ore Deposits: The Use of Reflectance Spectroscopy for Mineral Exploration in South America

Phyllosilicate minerals - composition

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

The dominant phyllosilicate minerals: smectites, illites, kaolinite, and chlorite in sedimentary systems

Automated reflectance spectroscopy for sedimentary basin characterization

Fossil fuels

Although fossil fuels are a declining resource, surveying and prospecting to find and extract them is still a vital part of our infrastructure and research. Check out our Energy and Power Engineering page to find out more about petrochemical analysis for the recycling of fuels and the reduction of pollutants. Otherwise, check out our application notes below to find out more about our solutions in fossil fuel research!

Fossil Fuels

Method

Sample

Application Note Title (Link)

Coal - elemental composition

XRF

Na2O, MgO, Al2O3, SiO2, P2O5, S, K2O, CaO, TiO2, MnO, Fe2O3, SrO, and BaO in unashed coal samples

Analysis of inorganic major and minor compounds in un-ashed coal samples prepared as pressed powder

Coal - mineralogical composition

XRD

Quartz(SiO2), kaolinite(Al2Si2O5(OH)4), calcite(CaCO3), dolomite(CaMg(CO3)2, Siderite(FeCO3), and anatase(TiO2)

Analysis of coal and related materials by XRD

Coal - sample preparation for ICP-OES elemental analysis

SPE

Thermal coal as fuel, metallurgical coal for steelmaking (lower S and P)

Characterization of Coal and its By-Products Using Borate Fusions and ICP-OES Analyses

Coal - sample preparation for ICP-OES elemental analysis

SPE

Coal, Coal Ash, and Coal Fly Ash

Characterization of Coal, Coal Ash, and Coal Fly Ash using Borate Fusion for ICP Analysis

Crude oil - Sulfur content

XRF

Sulfur in crude oil

Determination of sulfur content in crude oil according to ISO 8754

Drilling mud - particle size

LD

Barite, mud

Particle size analysis of drilling muds and components

Enhanced oil recovery - polymer particle size

DLS

(Surfactant and hydrogel polymers ) Polyacrylamide powder for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

Optimizing Small Volume DLS-Microrheology Measurements of Block Co-Polymers Used for Enhanced Oil Recovery Applications

Shale - mineral identification

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Clay mineralogy. Brief comparison of NIR, XRF, XRD, and QEMSCAN.

Use of NIR Spectroscopy in Mineral Identification in Shale

Mineralogy

All materials have their own composition. Mineralogy is the study of how the materials we use are made up and interact with each other – from rocks and ores to meteorites. Below, we’ve put together a few application examples of our mineral research solutions. Take a look to find out more!

Mineralogy

Method

Sample

Application Note Title (website link)

Base metal sulfides - elemental concentration

XRF

Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Co, Mo, Bi, Sb, Cd, Ag, Au, Se, and Te in sulfides

Analysis of Base Metal Sulfides using XRF and Fusion

Fluorspar - purity

XRF

CaF2 - Fluorspar

Purity check of fluorite (fluorspar, CaF2) prepared as fused beads

Manganese ore - elemental composition

XRF

Mn, Fe, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, and Ba in manganese ore

Analysis of manganese ore samples prepared as pressed pellets

Meteorite - crystallographic Phase identification

XRF

Olivine, (Mg, Fe)2SiO4, Ca-poor pyroxene CA) Si, Fe, Ca)Si2O6, Ca-rich pyroxene (diopside), CaMgSi2O6, spinel, MgAl2O4, anorthite, CaAl2Si2O8, and sodalite, Na8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2

Micro X-ray diffraction analysis on a meteorite

Meteorite - elemental composition

XRF

Meteorite: Si, Fe, Ni, Cr, Mn, Mo, Al, P, S, Cl, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Ti, Zn, and Zr

Elemental and phase analysis of a Northwest-Africa 2086 meteorite

Minerals - elemental composition

XRF

Minerals, Na2O2, MgO, Al2O3, SiO2, P2O5, K2O, CaO, TiO2, MnO, Fe2O3, Trace elements Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Nb

Analysis of major elements and selected trace elements in geological materials prepared as fused beads

Minerals - elemental composition

XRF

Elements in general geological materials

Analysis of major elements and selected trace elements in geological materials prepared as fused beads

Minerals - elemental composition

XRF

Mineral deposits, wide-range oxides, SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Mn3O4, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, and SO3

Zetium - Analysis of iron ores using the WROXI wide-range oxides application

Minerals - elemental composition

XRF

Mineral deposits, wide-range oxides, SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Mn3O4, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, and SO3

Zetium - Minerals analysis using WROXI standards

Minerals - elemental composition

XRF

Mineral deposits, wide-range oxides, SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Mn3O4, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, SO3

WROXI - synthetic wide-range oxide standards for fused bead major and minor element analysis

Minerals - hydration behavior

XRD

Smectite, vermiculite-like clays, and some hydrous micas

XRD in transmission geometry with controlled temperature and relative humidity

Minerals - trace elements

XRF

Trace elements in minerals

Zetium - Trace element analysis of geological materials using Zetium and Pro-Trace

Olivines - phase identification, crystal structure refinement

XRD

Olivines, Pyroxenes, Multiferroic materials, and LiCrGe2O6

Investigation of the crystal structure of the pyroxene LiCrGe2O6

Rocks and soils - elemental composition

XRF

Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Le, and Nd in rocks and soils

Analysis of Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Le, and Nd in rocks and soils - improved detection limits using K-series lines

Sn-W-Pb Ore - mineralogical composition

XRD

Sn-W-Nb Ore

Mineralogical analysis of Sn-W-Nb ore

Sulfide deposits - mineral variations

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Sulfide deposits, Tulks Volcanic Belt, Central Newfoundland. Very good examples of how to use NIR in an exploration project.

Visible/Infrared Spectroscopy (VIRS) of Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide Hydrothermal Alteration Products, Tulks Volcanic Belt, Central Newfoundland: An Additional Exploration Technique?

Minerals processing

As technology improves and opens up exciting new possibilities, minerals processing has become increasingly automated. At Malvern Panalytical, we’re always coming up with new tools and equipment to do new things with slurries, grains, and sands. Take a look below to find out more about how these tools enable new minerals processing research!

Minerals Processing

Method

Sample

Application Note Title (Link)

Aluminosilicates - sample preparation for XRF

SPE

Sand and Aluminosilicates

Determination of the Composition of Sand and Aluminosilicates Using Borate Fusion for XRF Analysis

Calcium Carbonate - particle size

LD

Calcium carbonate

Using on-line particle size analysis to improve precipitated calcium carbonate production efficiency

Gypsum - particle size and shape

MDRS

Gypsum slurry

Analyzing gypsum slurries using the Morphologi automated image analysis system

Heavy metal sands - mineralogical composition

XRD

Heavy Metal Sands (Titanium, Zirconium, Thorium)

Analysis of heavy mineral sands for industrial process control

Limestone - elemental composition

XRF

Limestone: CaO, Al2O3, SiO2, MgO, and Fe2O3 with traces of Sr, K, Mn, P, S, Ti, and Pb

Quick quantification of major and trace compounds in limestone

Limestone - elemental composition

XRF

Limestone/dolomite

Fingerprinting of mineral mixtures

Limestone - elemental concentration

XRF

Limestone, Al2O3, SiO2, MgO, Fe2O3 with races MnO, P2O5, and Pb

Analysis of limestone prepared as pressed powder pellets

Limestone - sample preparation for XRF

SPE

Limestone, metals in lime and limestone

Determination of metals in lime and limestone using borate fusion for ICP-OES

Mining

As one of our primary industries, mining and extracting metals and fuels is at the heart of everything we do. Research and innovation in this field focuses on finding new ways to make processes such as extraction and refining more efficient. We’ve put together a selection of examples on how our analytical instruments can be part of your mining engineering solutions. Check them out below to discover more!

Mining

Method

Sample

Application Note Title (Link)

Ag and Au ore processing - elemental concentration

XRF

Ag and Au on activated carbons (from the pulp and leach processes in precious metal ore processing)

Analysis of Au and Ag on activated carbon

Ag in ore - elemental concentration

XRF

Ag in Ore

Analysis of Ag in Ore

Base metal sulfides - elemental concentration

XRF

Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Co, Mo, Bi, Sb, Cd, Ag, Au, Se, and Te in sulfide ores

Analysis of Base Metal Sulfides using XRF and Fusion

Bauxite - elemental composition

XRF

Ni, Zn, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Mg, Al, Si in Al2O3,  Fe2O3  and  TiO2

Analysis of major and minor elements in bauxite samples prepared as fused beads

Bauxite - elemental composition

XRF

Bauxite

Zetium - Analysis of bauxite using the WROXI wide-range oxides application

Bauxite - elemental composition

XRF

Bauxite (hydrated alumina, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Si, Fe, Ti + trace metal oxides)

Zetium - Quantification of major and minor elements in bauxite prepared as fused beads

Bauxite - grade control

XRD

Hematite, goethite, and magnetite, as well as the gangue minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3, kaolinite Al2Si2O5(OH)4, and quartz SiO2

Grade control of bauxites using X-ray diffraction (XRD)

Bauxite - sample preparation for XRF

SPE

Bauxite (hydrated alumina, Al2O3, Fe2O3 + trace metal oxides)

Inter-Position Repeatability Study on TheOx® Advanced Instrument Using Bauxite Type Samples Followed by XRF Analysis

Bauxite/Iron Ore - mineralogical composition

XRD

Iron Ore, Bauxite

X-ray diffraction applications for the mining industry

Chromium ores - sample preparation for ICP-OES

SPE

Chromic oxide (Cr2O3), in which the proportions of Mg2+, Fe2+ and Cr3+, Al3+, and Fe3+ may vary

Dissolution made easy using peroxide fusions for ICP-OES analyses for chromite ores, ferrochromes, and chromium slags

Copper Mining - agglomeration optimization

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Copper, acid, and water

Potential Cost Savings from Agglomeration Optimization in Copper Mining

Copper Ores - mineralogical analysis

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Copper Ores (good model results on a good-sized data set for quantitative mineralogy)

Rapid Mineralogical Analysis of Copper Ores

Copper ore - mineralogical composition

XRD

23 minerals in copper ore including chalcopyrite CuFeS2, cuprite Cu2O, tenorite CuO, and sulfates such as brochantite Cu4[(OH)6(SO4)] and serpierite Ca(Cu, Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6•3H2O

Mineralogical analysis of copper ore

Iron ore - elemental composition

XRF

Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn ores in iron ore

Analysis of iron samples prepared as fused beads

Iron ore - elemental composition

XRF

Fe2O3 containing Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and As

Faster analysis of iron ores with Zetium and SumXcore technology

Iron ore – grading general article (not specific to our product)

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Iron ore samples from Noamnudi mines, Jharkhand, India (Hematite, Magnetite, Limonite, and Siderite)

Hyperspectral Radiometry to Estimate the Grades of Iron Ores of Noamnudi, India - A Preliminary Study

Iron ore - mineralogical composition

XRD

Iron ore

Mineralogical analysis of iron ore

Iron ore - mineralogical composition

XRD

Iron ore, goethite, hematite, gibbsite-kaolinite-quartz

XRD for grade control of iron ores

Iron ore - oxide content and basicity

XRD

FeO content and basicity

Analysis of iron sinter by X-ray diffraction reduces CO2 emissions

Iron Ore - sample preparation for elemental analysis

SPE

NaT flux to fuse iron ore

Using sodium tetraborate (NaT) flux to prepare iron ores by fusion for XRF analysis

Iron Ore - sample preparation for elemental analysis

SPE

Iron Ore, fused beads using Borate Fusion

ISO 9516-1 Simplified Borate Fusion & WDXRF Analytical Method for Iron Ores Analysis Including Exploration Samples

Nickel ore - elemental composition

XRF

Ni, Co, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Al, Cr, Ca, and Si in nickel ore

Analysis of nickel ore samples prepared as fused beads

Phosphates - elemental and mineralogical composition

XRD

Mining for Phosphates - Yara's Mine in Finland

A tailor-made solution for Yara - customer story

Phosphates - elemental composition

XRF

High phosphate minerals, production of phosphoric acid - including Fe2O3, Al2O3, and SiO2

Zetium - Analysis of phosphates using the WROXI wide-range oxides application

Rock face - mineral libraries

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Model Mine face (rock face)

On the Development of a Hyperspectral Library for Autonomous Mining Systems

Abbreviations explained

Our products and technologies are described on the Products pages. Below you can find a quick reference to the properties measured by our instruments, together with the measurement name and its abbreviation. Click on each method to find out more about it! 

Abbreviation

Method Name

Instrument(s)

Measured Property

DLS

Dynamic light scattering

Zetasizer

Molecular size, hydrodynamic radius RH,  particle size, size distribution, stability, concentration, agglomeration

ELS

Electrophoretic light scattering

Zetasizer

Zeta potential, particle charge, suspension stability, protein mobility

ITC

Iso-thermal calorimetry

MicroCal  ITC

Binding affinity, thermodynamics of molecular reactions in solution

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

Microcal DSC

Denaturing (unfolding) of large molecules, stability of macromolecules

IMG

Automated Morphological Imaging

Morphologi 4

Imaging of particles, automated shape and size measurement

MDRS

Morphologically directed Raman spectroscopy

Morphologi 4-ID

Imaging of particles, automated shape and size measurement, chemical identification and contaminant detection

LD

Laser diffraction

Mastersizer

Spraytec

Insitec

Parsum

Particle size, size distribution

NTA

Nanoparticle tracking analysis

NanoSight

Particle size, size distribution, and concentration

SEC or GPC

Size exclusion chromatography /

Gel permeation chromatography

OMNISEC

Molecular size, molecular weight, oligomeric state, polymer or protein size and molecular structure

SPE

Sample preparation by fusion

Le Neo

LeDoser

Eagon 2

The OxAdvanced

M4

rFusion

Fused Bead Sample preparation for XRF, Peroxide solution preparations for ICP, Flux weighing for beadmaking

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Ultra-violet / visible / near infra-red / short wave infra-red spectrometry

LabSpec

FieldSpec

TerraSpec

QualitySpec

Material identification and analysis, moisture, mineral, carbon content. Ground truthing for airborne and satellite spectroscopic techniques.

PFTNA

Pulsed fast thermal neutron activation

CNA

In-line elemental analysis

XRD-C

X-ray diffraction (crystallography)

Aeris

Empyrean

Molecular crystal structure refinement,

crystalline phase identification and quantification, crystalline to amorphous ratio, crystallite size analysis

XRD-M

X-ray diffraction (microstructure)

Empyrean

X’Pert3 MRD(XL)

Residual stress, texture

XRD-CT

X-ray absorption imaging by computed tomography

Empyrean

3D imaging of solids, porosity, and density

SAXS

Small-angle X-ray scattering

Empyrean

Nanoparticles, size, shape and structure

GISAXS

Glancing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering

Empyrean

Nanostructured thin films and surfaces

HR-XRD

High-resolution X-ray diffraction

Empyrean

X’Pert3 MRD(XL)

Thin-films and epitaxial multilayers, composition, strain, thickness, quality

XRR

X-ray reflectometry

Empyrean

X’Pert3 MRD(XL)

Thin films and surfaces, film thickness, surface and interface roughness

XRF

X-ray fluorescence

Epsilon

Zetium

Axios FAST

2830 ZT

Elemental composition, elemental concentration, trace elements, contaminant detection

Expert solutions in geological sciences, minerals, and mining engineering. Contact us to discuss your challenges.
영업팀 연락처 지금 가입하기