Non-ambient in-operando XRD platform on Lithium-ion batteries

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An outstanding issue when pushing the performance of battery materials is the degradation during cycling. The origins of battery degradation are elusive and often related to events including particle cracking, lithium retention in electrodes, electrolyte degradation, lithium-plating, and dendrite formation. Understanding the pertinent mechanisms becomes increasingly significant in order to tackle them and consequently facilitate the discovery of high-performance batteries that will meet the requirements for multiple applications.

In-operando X-ray diffraction is a judicious technique to investigate the underpinning mechanisms by essentially tracing the crystal structure changes during battery cycling. In particular, our Empyrean XRD is a versatile platform with applications ranging from the characterizations of crystal structures to the in-operando cycling-dependent structural changes for various types of battery cells – from coin or electrochemical cells to pouch and prismatic cells.

Heat generated during the cycling of lithium-ion batteries usually causes the aging of battery materials, significantly degrading their performance and limiting their applications. On the other hand, the temperature change due to the immediate environment also reduces the performance of batteries. Empyrean XRD platform enabling the heating and cooling during cycling of batteries is dedicated to studying the battery stability under non-ambient conditions and deeply understanding temperature effects on the performance of batteries. By combining with the HighScore Plus software, our XRD analysis package with full data visualization and automated analysis, provides a powerful platform in investigating the origins of battery degradation and the role of temperature in battery performance.


  • Lei Ding - XRD Application Specialist, Malvern Panalytical
  • Katherine Macchiarola - Marketing Director - Americas, Malvern Panalytical

More information

Who should attend? 

  • Scientists and researchers interested in in-operando XRD battery applications
  • Anyone interested in or working on battery applications

What will you learn? 

  • Why non-ambient XRD is important
  • How to perform the non-ambient in-operando XRD on Empyrean using hard radiation and the pertinent data analysis using HighScore
  • How Non-ambient in-operando XRD helps in understanding the battery performance