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Whitepaper

29 June 2022 | English

Improving paint and coating formulations

Paints and coatings are highly complex multi-component systems that pose many challenges for the formulation chemist. Ongoing control of raw materials and final formulations is essential for ensuring product quality and customer satisfaction, while an in-depth understanding of physical properties is necessary to devise new formulations. This white paper discusses these challenges, and explains how obtaining information on the constituents of paint at the molecular and particle level using the techniques of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser diffraction (LD), electrophoretic light scattering (ELS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) (more generally known as size exclusion chromatography (SEC)), and particle image analysis can ultimately lead to better product performance, streamlined operations, and greater value to the business. Please register or login to download the whitepaper. Contents Contents Introduction Challenges faced by paint manufacturers Confirming chemical purity of raw materials Adhering to regulations on lead content Optimizing particle size for powder coatings Determining droplet size in liquid spray paints Understanding polymer properties Understanding effects of particle properties on color performance Understanding the role of dispersants for dispersion stability Understanding effects of particle properties on gloss, weathering and flatting performance Understanding effects of the formulation components on bulk properties Measuring film thickness and composition Investigating residual stress and microstructure in ‘smart’ coatings Analytical techniques used for analysis of paints and coatings Elemental analysis using XRF Crystal phase analysis using XRD Particle size measurement using LD Nanoparticle size measurement using DLS Zeta potential measurement using Particle shape and size measurement using image analysis Polymer analysis using GPC/SEC Conclusions References

Products:
Morphologi 4-ID, Morphologi 4, Zetasizer Advance Range, Insitec range, Spraytec, Mastersizer 3000, X'Pert3 MRD, Aeris range, Empyrean range, Claisse TheOx Advanced, Claisse LeNeo, Epsilon range, OMNISEC system, Zetium
Technology:
X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Gel Permeation Chromatography, Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC), Image analysis, Dynamic Light Scattering, Electrophoretic Light Scattering, Laser Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)
Industry:
Chemicals/Coatings, Paints and pigments
Improving paint and coating formulations
Whitepaper

30 March 2022 | English

Nickel mining with the CNA Pentos

Nickel laterite in the Sorowako and Petea area of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, is classified into one of two main types, depending on the bedrock and silica-to-magnesia ratio in the mineralization: West Block and East Block. The East Block mine is high-recovery, low-olivine (∼60­–65%)parent rock, whereas West Block is low-recovery, high-olivine (∼80–90%)parent rock. Petea is a mainly lateritic landform with below-average nickel content.

Products:
CNA range, CNA Pentos-Cement
Technology:
Pulsed Fast Thermal Neutron Activation (PFTNA)
Industry:
Mining
Nickel mining with the CNA Pentos
Whitepaper

31 January 2022 | English

Differential scanning calorimetry: your guide to analyzing proteins for vaccine stability

DSC is a trusted and proven technique for protein thermal stability screening in vaccine development. Due to the wide operating temperatures, clear indication of the transition stage and straightforward operating conditions that do not compromise protein stability, DSC can achieve the highest standards of screening. By accurately determining the Tm and exact protein stability profile, DSC is fast becoming the method of choice to identify the most stable protein sub-units, viral vectors and virus-like particles. By direct analysis and by defining the parameters for high throughput methods (such as DSF and CD) DSC can help to determine the ideal pH and temperature parameters to extend vaccine shelf-life and ensure safe storage. This guide explains how you can use DSC to optimize your process and speed up the selection of vaccine candidates. Please login or register for free to read more.

Products:
MicroCal PEAQ-DSC
Technology:
Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
Industry:
Biologics, Pharmaceutical
Differential scanning calorimetry: your guide to analyzing proteins for vaccine stability
Whitepaper

03 December 2021 | English

Eliminate problematic polymorphs and fast-track stable solid forms with X-ray powder diffraction

Progressing drug development without fully understanding the structure and stability of polymorph variants can quickly lead to potential safety, efficacy or quality issues. Gaps in polymorph profiling can also lead to ambiguity in patent applications, which can have disastrous consequences even years into a drug product’s lifecycle. A clear understanding of an API and all its forms - through solid form analysis - could improve the chances of regulatory approval, decrease the time required to get a drug product to market, and protect potential revenues. This guide explores the use of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) as a powerful tool to develop and improve pharmaceutical formulations and ensure quality standards are met throughout the drug development workflow.

Products:
Aeris range, Empyrean range
Technology:
X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
Industry:
Pharmaceutical
Eliminate problematic polymorphs and fast-track stable solid forms with X-ray powder diffraction
Whitepaper

27 August 2021 | English

How to choose a light scattering instrument for nanoparticle size and zeta potential measurements

DLS and ELS are versatile techniques that are used to characterize the size and zeta potential of particulate materials. They are most commonly applied to colloidal systems, nanoparticles and macromolecules in solution or dispersion. Of course, the specifications of a DLS/ELS instrument are vital when comparing systems from different manufacturers. But if you don’t use your system in the right way, or don’t take advantage of all the options, then you won’t get the best out of it. So here we cover not just the specifications you should be thinking about when purchasing an instrument, but other key aspects, such as sample type and workflow. That way, you’ll get a system that does exactly what it needs to do for you, and does it well. DLS and ELS essentialsDLS uses the light scattering of particles or molecules undergoing Brownian motion to measure their diffusion coefficients. These are then converted into size distributions. ELS uses the Doppler effect arising from the motion of light-scattering particles to measure their speed in the presence of an electric field. This is then converted into a zeta potential value (or distribution). Because of the similarity of the technology involved in DLS and ELS, and the complementary nature of the results, most systems on the market (including our Zetasizer Advance range) offer both techniques. Login to access the full whitepaper.

Products:
Zetasizer range
Technology:
Electrophoretic Light Scattering, Dynamic Light Scattering
Measurement type:
Particle size, Zeta potential
How to choose a light scattering instrument for nanoparticle size and zeta potential measurements
Whitepaper

05 July 2021 | English

Five compelling reasons to add the Hydro Insight dynamic imaging accessory to your Mastersizer 3000

Scientists, researchers, and quality control managers around the world use laser diffraction for particle size analysis. But, to develop truly high-performance products, you often need deeper insights than those provided by laser diffraction alone. In particular, to understand the influences behind packing, flow, and dissolution rate, you need to understand how particle size and shape affect your materials’ behavior. The Hydro Insight accessory provides these insights by combining Vision Analytical’s dynamic imaging expertise with Malvern Panalaytical’s flow cell and dispersion technology. Sitting alongside our Mastersizer 3000 laser diffraction system, the Hydro Insight provides real-time images of your liquid particle dispersions and individual particles. It provides quantitative data on particle shape as well as a window into your laser diffraction measurement, so you can troubleshoot more easily and develop particle sizing methods more quickly. If you’re still not convinced, we hope this white paper will outline the benefits of adding the Hydro Insight dynamic imaging accessory to your Mastersizer 3000.

Products:
Mastersizer 3000
Technology:
Laser Diffraction
Measurement type:
Particle size
Five compelling reasons to add the Hydro Insight dynamic imaging accessory to your Mastersizer 3000
Whitepaper

01 December 2020 | English

Characterizing Catalytic Materials with Laboratory-Based X-Ray Diffraction Platforms

IntroductionCatalytic materials are important for a wide variety of applications from their use in the chemical industry to the utilization in solar energy production to everyday applications such as automotive catalysts. There are three main types of catalysts; heterogeneous catalysts, homogeneous catalysts, and biocatalysts (enzymes), with heterogeneous catalysts the most studied via X-ray diffraction (XRD). Typically, these types of catalysts consist of solid-state materials such as metals, inorganic compounds, and zeolites which increase the rate of reaction due to the surface binding of reactants. Additionally, homogeneous and biocatalysts can be studied to some extent as well. In the analysis of these substances, it is important to examine structure-performance relationships and identify reaction mechanisms (i.e. the elementary reaction steps, intermediates, and active sites) under technologically relevant conditions. To do so requires an in-depth knowledge of the atomic structure on both the short- and long-range scales. X-ray diffraction is a technique that can provide information about the average bulk structure of a material based on the interference pattern resulting from the long-range ordering of scattering centers. Using Bragg’s law, XRD allows for the determination of the spacing between scattering planes (d) by measuring the scattering angle (θ) at a fixed wavelength (λ), as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: Illustration of Bragg diffraction where two beams with identical wavelength and phase are scattered from two atoms with spacing (d) to give constructive interference (n = 1, 2, 3…) The observed peaks relate to the symmetry and unit cell dimensions of the material and can be used as a fingerprint for phase identification as well as to provide a quantitative analysis of the sample. Furthermore, examination of the peak breadths, low angle scattering, and inverse Fourier transformation of the reciprocal space data can provide information about particle and crystallite size as well as short-range ordering in the material. Much of this information is obtained via X-ray scattering techniques which do not rely on the presence of long-range order and can be utilized to study nano-sized and amorphous materials. Malvern Panalytical’s line of X-ray diffraction instruments can aide in the analysis of catalytic materials by yielding the identification and quantification of both crystalline and amorphous phases as well as providing information about particle and crystallite size, micro strain, thermal stability, and local atomic structure (i.e. short- and intermediate-range order). With the use of non-ambient chambers, catalytic materials can be examined under various operating conditions which can aide in understanding reaction pathways and identifying the presence of intermediate phases. Under these conditions it is possible to monitor processes such as oxidation/reduction reactions that contribute to the activation of catalytic materials. Additionally, many catalysts consist of nano sized materials making information regarding the local structure an important aspect of performance optimization. As XRD only provides information related to the bulk structure of materials, it is often necessary to perform additional methods such as small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. These techniques allow for the determination of structural information on the nanometer scale (i.e. 1 – 100 nm) which is a pertinent size range for many catalytic materials. In particular, information such as particle size and shape as well as specific surface area (SSA) can be obtained via SAXS measurements while PDF analysis provides information regarding short-range atomic order (i.e. atomic pair correlations) which can give insight into nanocrystalline and amorphous phases as well as local structure variations. This white paper highlights several techniques that can be performed on Malvern Panalytical’s floor standing and benchtop XRD platforms to assist in the characterization of catalytic materials. With Malvern Panalytical’s Empyrean instrument, which allows for the easy exchange of stages and optics, basic powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) measurements (i.e. phase identification and quantification) as well as non-ambient, SAXS and PDF experiments can all be performed without the need for re-alignment of the instrument. Additionally, both PXRD and non-ambient measurements can also be performed on the benchtop Aeris instrument which has comparable resolution, scan-times, and peak intensities to the floor standing Empyrean. Data from both instruments can be analyzed via HighScore (Plus) software for phase identification and quantification as well as the analysis of non-ambient and PDF data. Additionally, Malvern Panalytical’s EasySAXS software provides a straightforward method to obtain relevant information from SAXS data. Please login or register for free to read more.

Products:
GaliPIX3D, Empyrean range, PIXcel3D
Technology:
X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Light Scattering
Industry:
Catalysts, Advanced Manufacturing, Chemicals
Characterizing Catalytic Materials with Laboratory-Based X-Ray Diffraction Platforms
Whitepaper

22 October 2020 | English

10 reasons to trust Mastersizer 3000

Modern industrial processes rely on a growing range of sophisticated technologies to ensure the quality of materials and finished products. The more these systems become embedded, the heavier the reliance on their abilities to perform consistently and to deliver essential data for critical decision-making. And the greater the risk, should they fail to do so. Investing in technology solutions that are tried and trusted helps mitigate that risk, in the knowledge that they embody the accumulated experience and expertise of others and have a track record of dependable practical service. However, they must also align with current needs and have the capacity to accommodate evolving quality requirements. Mastersizer has long been one of the most trusted brands in particle sizing. Upholding this reputation, the industry-leading Mastersizer 3000 laser diffraction particle size analyzer has earned the confidence of thousands of users around the world who routinely rely on it. Please login or register to read more.

Products:
Mastersizer 3000
Technology:
Laser Diffraction
Measurement type:
Particle size
10 reasons to trust Mastersizer 3000
Whitepaper

01 October 2020 | English

The Throughput Booster for Binding Interaction Screening

The accurate and efficient measurement of intermolecular interactions and binding events is a critical element for all manner of basic research and an indispensable component of drug discovery programs. Ligand binding assays can be performed using labeled molecules (radiolabels, fluorescent labels, etc.), but appropriate, non-disruptive labeling and often elaborate washing and purification steps are required. Additionally, the kinetics of interactions are not easily acquired or understood using these methods. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) changed the game with its ability to monitor and measure interactions in real time using unlabeled species, but challenges remain. Measurements usually require significant time investment because they involve repeated introductions of increasing concentrations of analyte, and they are sensitive to bulk refractive index changes in buffers; these issues limit the utility of SPR in screening programs. Creoptix previously developed and patented the grating-coupled interferometry (GCI) technology as the most sensitive label-free quantification standard, and we are now excited to introduce a revolutionary detection method—waveRAPID®—that will drastically reduce assay time and reagent consumption while improving readout to identify leads in the drug discovery process faster and with more confidence.

Products:
Creoptix WAVE
Technology:
Grating-coupled interferometry (GCI), Microfluidics
Industry:
Biologics, Pharmaceutical
The Throughput Booster for Binding Interaction Screening
Whitepaper

06 July 2020 | English

Reasons to upgrade to Mastersizer 3000 now

Unsupported or ageing technology presents business-critical risks to continuity, productivity and output in today’s fast-moving, high-tech laboratory environments where skills and practices have changed dramatically in recent years. Investing in new technology means weighing up the true costs of inaction versus the benefits of staying ahead and what that means for your business. In April 2022, the long-serving Mastersizer 2000 laser diffraction particle size analyzer reaches the end of its supported life. This system triggered a revolution in enabling laser diffraction particle sizing to become the routine analytical tool the manufacturing industry relies on today. It also paved the way for the next generation Mastersizer 3000, a powerful system whose intelligent automated operation, extended measurement range and small footprint perfectly align it with current laboratory pressures and the need for streamlined workflows. A fully supported upgrade to Mastersizer 3000 - whether from Mastersizer 2000 or from an alternative system or technology - will de-risk and future-proof your processes, and there are compelling reasons to act now. Please login or register to read more.

Products:
Mastersizer 3000
Reasons to upgrade to Mastersizer 3000 now