The ancient Greeks believed that Krystallos (crystal) was light frozen into ice and that it was so hard that it could never be melted. In later times, crystallography started as a science which studied the outer symmetry of crystals in order to try to explain the inner side of crystals. Father and son Bragg were the first ones that used X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the inside of crystals and showed the periodic arrangement of atoms in a crystal.
Nowadays X-ray crystallography is used in many fields of chemistry, mineralogy and physics. Not only in the so-called crystalline state (ordered position of ions, atoms or molecules) but also in the amorphous and liquid states that do not have long-order periodicity.
Crystallographic analysis needs the highest quality diffraction data. Malvern Panalytical’s Empyrean Alpha-1 configured with a Ge monochromator (Johansson type) gives perfect Cu or Co Kα1-only Bragg-Brentano reflection geometry data for structure determination. Using a PreFIX hybrid monochromator, an α1-only parallel beam transmission geometry is created on Empyrean for transmission or capillary work.