In situ X-ray analysis, often referred to as analysis at non-ambient conditions, is one of the key applications for advanced material research in both academic and industrial environments.
Any macroscopic property of a material is directly related to its structural property (e.g. crystallographic symmetry, crystallite size, vacancies, size and shape of nanoparticles or pores). Temperature, pressure, varying gas atmosphere and mechanical stress trigger phase transformation, chemical reactions, recrystallization and so on.
X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray scattering techniques are the first and sometimes the only choice for the correct and accurate in situ characterization of these changes. Whether it is for an optimization of a manufacturing process or tuning of a synthesis procedure, or for state-of-the-art research and creation of new materials, in situ X-ray analysis is the most comprehensive tool for problem solving.