What is X-ray Fluorescence?

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is an analytical technique that can be used to determine the chemical composition of a wide variety of sample types including solids, liquids, slurries and loose powders. X-ray fluorescence is also used to determine the thickness and composition of layers and coatings. It can analyze elements from beryllium (Be) to uranium (U) in concentration ranges from 100 wt% to sub-ppm levels.

What are the benefits of XRF analysis?

XRF analysis is a robust technique, combining high precision and accuracy with straightforward, fast sample preparation. It can be readily automated for use in high-throughput industrial environments, plus XRF provides both qualitative and quantitative information on a sample. Easy combination of this ‘what?’ and ‘how much?’ information also makes rapid screening (semi-quantitative) analysis possible.

Principles behind XRF

XRF is an atomic emission method, similar in this respect to optical emission spectroscopy (OES), ICP and neutron activation analysis (gamma spectroscopy). Such methods measure the wavelength and intensity of ‘light’ (X-rays in this case) emitted by energized atoms in the sample. In XRF, irradiation by a primary X-ray beam from an X-ray tube, causes emission of fluorescent X-rays with discrete energies characteristic of the elements present in the sample. 

Determination of elemental composition

The technology used for the separation (dispersion), identification and intensity measurement of a sample’s X-ray fluorescence spectrum gives rise to two main types of spectrometer: wavelength dispersive (WDXRF) and energy dispersive (EDXRF) systems.

XRF analyzers

We offer a wide range of X-ray Fluorescence solutions for the analysis of elemental composition of a wide range of materials and applications, and comprising both Wavelength and Energy Dispersive solutions. Discover our solution portfolio in the table below:


Epsilon range

Axios FAST

2830 ZT

Zetium Epsilon range Axios FAST 2830 ZT

Elemental excellence

Fast and accurate at- and on-line elemental analysis

High sample throughput

Advanced semiconductor thin film metrology solution

More details More details More details More details
Measurement type
Thin film metrology
Elemental analysis
Contaminant detection and analysis
Elemental quantification
Chemical identification
Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF)
Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF)
Elemental range Be-U Na-Am Be-U Be-U
LLD 0.1 ppm - 100% 1 ppm - 100% 0.1 ppm - 100% 0.1 ppm - 100%
Resolution (Mn-Ka) 35eV 145eV 35eV 35eV
Sample throughput Up to - 240per 8h day Up to - 160per 8h day Up to - 480per 8h day up to 25 wafers per hour