Interested in improving your biological and medical sciences knowledge with our analytical solutions? Whether you’re a student, a researcher, or a professor, we’ve got a wide range of useful articles on the most relevant application examples for our biological research solutions.

Biological and medical research covers a wide, unique range of topics within biology and chemistry. The materials researched and analytical equipment used often overlap with Agriculture and Food Sciences and Pharmaceutical Sciences, so you may also find useful information on those pages. You’ll find the method abbreviations explained at the bottom of this page.

Biochemistry

Biochemistry research focuses on the chemistry of biomolecules, as well as how biological molecules enable processes within and between cells. In turn, this relates to the medical study of tissues, organs, and organism structure and function.

Biochemistry encompasses the study of a wide range of topics, including:

  • Genetics
  • Hematology
  • Vaccines
  • Biotherapeutics
  • Food science
  • Molecular biology
  • Virology
  • Biology
  • Formulation
  • Nanobiotechnology
  • Biomolecular engineering
  • Pharmaceutical sciences
  • Drug discovery

Here’s a selection of application notes and articles relevant to Biochemistry research. Take a look to find out more!

Biochemistry

Method

Sample

Application Note Title (Link)

An introduction to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

DSC

Various

Microcalorimetry as a tool for structural biology

Antibodies - thermal stability

DSC

various monoclonal antibodies

Polyol-induced increases in thermal stability of antibodies by DSC

Antibodies - aggregation

DLS

Monoclonal antibodies

Monoclonal Antibody Characterization

Antibodies - monomer or oligomer (method comparison)

DLS

Immunoglobulin G4

Comparing Dynamic Light Scattering and the Analytical Ultra Centrifuge

Antibodies - variable domains

DSC

humanized IgG1 anti-bodies,

Contribution of variable domains to the stability of humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibodies

Bacterial toxins - hydrodynamic changes

SEC

 Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA)

Characterizing Calcium-induced hydrodynamic changes using SEC with Triple Detection

Bacterial toxins - oligomeric state

SEC

Anthrolysin (ALO)

Overcoming the negative effect of protein structure on molecular weight measurement by Size Exclusion Chromatography – Two protein case studies with Anthrolysin and Bcl-2

Disaccharides - lower size limits of measurement

DLS

Sucrose

Measuring Sub Nanometer Sizes Using Dynamic Light Scattering

Disaccharides - lower size limits of measurement

DLS

Sucrose

Confirming the Lower Size Specification of the Zetasizer APS

DNA - melting behavior

DSC

Salmon testes DNA (ST- DNA)

Differential Scanning Calorimetry to measure the binding of ions, water and protons in the unfolding of DNA molecules

Enzymes - concentration

DLS

TAKA Amylase

The Measurement of High Concentration Proteins Using DLS: TAKA Amylase

Enzymes - electrophoretic mobility with metal ions

DLS / ELS

Carbonic anhydrase (CA)

Studying the influence of metal ions on the structural stability of carbonic anhydrase with the Zetasizer Nano ZSP: An orthogonal approach

Enzymes - inhibitor mechanisms

DSC

Kinase

Revealing kinase inhibitor mechanisms: ITC leads the way

Enzymes - monomeric vs oligomeric with pH

DLS

Pyrrolidone carboxyl peptidase (PCP)

Oligomeric states of a thermophile

Enzymes - size exclusion

DLS

Bovine Carbonic Anhydrase

Dynamic Light Scattering as a Size Exclusion Chromatography detector

Enzymes - stability with pH

DLS

Lactase

Using Light scattering to study the stability of Lactase

Globular proteins - size and molecular weight

DLS

Myoglobin, Hemoglobin

Size Measurement and Molecular Weight Estimation of Globins using Dynamic Light Scattering

Hormones - contamination, aggregation

DLS

Insulin, amyloids

Minimizing cross-contamination during automated protein analysis

Hormones - contamination, aggregation

DLS

Insulin, amyloids

Ensuring Accurate and Repeatable measurement of proteins using the Zetasizer APS

Hormones – self-association

TDA

Insulin

Assessing the self-association behavior of Insulin with concentration using Taylor Dispersion Analysis

Immunoglobulin - aggregation

SEC

Immunoglobulin G (IgG)

Characterization of IgG monomers and their aggregates

Immunoglobulin - molecular weight, intrinsic velocity

DLS

sRAGE

Measuring conformational changes of sRAGE with intrinsic viscosity

Immunoglobulin - polydispersity

DLS

Immunoglobulin G

Assessing the quality of proteins using light scattering techniques

Immunoglobulin - size distribution

SEC + DLS

Immunoglobulin G4

Size Exclusion Chromatography Dynamic Light Scattering (SEC-DLS)

Interferons - PEGylation

SEC

Interferon α-5

PEGylated proteins: Optimizing conjugation reactions using triple detection SEC

Large molecules - aggregation

DLS / SEC

Bovine serum albumin (BSA)

Comparison of SEC-LS and DLS capabilities in the detection and quantification of large protein aggregates

Large molecules - monomers and dimers

DLS + SEC

Human Serum Albumin (HSA), Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)

A comparison of the resolution and detection sensitivity of SEC-LS and DLS

Lectins - binding strength

DLS

Concanavalin A

Binding strength of sugars to Concanavalin A

mRNA - riboswitch activity

ITC

Bacterial mRNA

Implementation of kinITC into AFFINImeter

Nanobubbles - size and concentration

NTA

Bovine Serum Albumin and Lysozyme contaminants on surfaces

Nanobubble Applications and Characterization by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis

Nanoparticles - size and concentration

NTA

Oligonucleotide-functionalized gold colloid

Gold Nanoparticle Applications and Characterization by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis

Nanoparticles - size and concentration

DLS

Ultrasperical Gold Nanoparticles

Measuring the size of gold nanoparticles using multi-angle dynamic light scattering (MADLS)

Polyglucosides - molecular weight

DLS

Dextran

Characterization of Dextran using Light Scattering Techniques

Polyglucosides - molecular weight

DLS

Dextran

Molecular weight determination of polymers and polysaccharides using the Zetasizer Nano

Polysaccharide polymers - molecular weight and structure

SEC

Chitin/Chitosan

Using triple detection GPC/SEC to determine the molecular weight and structure of Chitosans

Polysaccharide polymers - molecular weight distribution

SEC

Chitin/Chitosan

Characterization of chitosan from various sources

Proteins -  melting behavior

XRD

Thyroglobulin

SAXS study on the thermostability of a protein in solution

Proteins  - molecular weight

SEC

Dextran, Bovine Albumin

Protein and polymer molecular size by GPC/SEC

Proteins - agglomeration

ELS

Lysozyme

Zeta potential measurement of Lysozyme in the High Concentration Zeta Potential Cell

Proteins - aggregate size

DLS

Bovine serum albumin (BSA), β-lactoglobulin,

Combining technologies for the superior detection, separation and characterization of protein aggregates

Proteins - aggregates

DLS

Lysozyme

Adaptive Correlation: Better insight to the presence of aggregates

Proteins - aggregation index

DLS

Immunoglobulin G (IgG)

Enhanced aggregate detection: monitoring protein stability using dual angle light scattering

Proteins - aggregation point

DLS

Ovalbumin

Characterisation of protein aggregation point

Proteins - breakdown to polypeptides

SEC

Alcohol dehydrogenase

Typical protein applications for advanced analytical SEC

Proteins - complexation and binding

DLS

Bovine serum albumin

Characterization of protein-polyelectrolyte complexes

Proteins - crystal structure

XRD

Lysozyme

Transmission diffraction. Measurement and unit cell refinement of lysozyme

Proteins - eliminating cross-contamination

DLS

Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme,

Demonstrating that the Zetasizer APS eliminates cross contamination

Proteins - hydrodynamic radius

DLS

Lysozyme

Measurements of 0.1mg/ml Lysozyme in 2μl cell volume

Proteins - hydrodynamic radius, concentration

DLS

Bovine serum albumin

Protein measurements with the Zetasizer µV connected to a GE AKTA SEC system

Proteins - hydrodynamic size and zeta potential

ELS

Human Serum Albumin (HSA)

Improving Protein Zeta Potential Measurements Utilizing A Novel Diffusion Barrier technique

Proteins - ligand binding

NTA

Biotin-Streptavidin complex

Determining fluorescence Limit of Detection with Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA)

Proteins - microrheology

DLS + ELS

Bovine serum albumin

DLS Microrheology on the Zetasizer Nano ZSP/ZS: Use of a zeta potential pre-measurement step to assess tracer particle-sample interactions

Proteins - modeling concentration effects

DLS

Colloidal silica spheres

Using the Zetasizer Nano to study concentration dependent changes in protein size

Proteins - molecular weight

SEC

Bovine serum albumin

Measuring protein molecular weight using the Viscotek SEC-MALS 20 connected to a Waters Empower® SEC system

Proteins - number and size distribution

DLS

Lysozyme

Number and volume size distributions

Proteins - oligomeric state

SEC

Human serum albumin (HAS)

Characterization of Human Serum Albumin using the Viscotek TDAmax

Proteins - particle size and zeta potential

ELS

Human Serum Albumin (HSA)

Measurements of protein electrophoretic mobility using the Zetasizer Nano ZSP

Proteins - particle size with concentration

DLS

Human Serum Albumin (HSA)

The Effect of Concentration on Dynamic Light Scattering Measurements of Proteins

Proteins - particle size, zeta potential, molecular weight

DLS + ELS

Ferritin

Characterization of Ferritin

Proteins - radius of gyration

XRD

Glucose Imerase

ScatterX78 for BioSAXS studies on dilute protein solutions

Proteins - resolution of mixtures

SEC

Glucose Oxidase, Lactoperoxidase, Lactoferrin, and Lysozyme

Analysis of Protein Mixtures with Multi-Detector SEC

Proteins - size, aggregation with temperature

DLS

Lysozyme and bovine serum albumin (BSA)

Enhanced Protein Aggregation Detection Using Dual Angle Dynamic Light Scattering

Proteins - size, temperature-induced aggregation

DLS

Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) or Ovalbumin

Detecting protein aggregation in solution using DLS microrheology

Proteins - size titration

DLS + ELS

Bovine serum albumin

Automated protein characterization using the MPT-2 Autotitrator*

Proteins - solution viscosity

DLS

Bovine serum albumin (BSA)  in phosphate buffer (PBS)

Determination of protein solution viscosity using DLS microrheology

Proteins - stability in storage

DLS

Immunoglobulin

Effect of storage conditions on Immunoglobulin

Biomedical engineering

Biomedical engineering lies at the interface of disciplines such as polymer science, ceramics, biology, and protein chemistry. Below, you’ll find a selection of application notes and articles that relate closely to biomedical sciences and engineering. Feel free to explore them and learn more!

Biomedical Engineering

Method

Sample

Application Note Title (website link)

Biocompatibility - Interactions, size of complexes

DLS

 

Keggin ions

Interactions of Bovine Serum Albumin with Aluminum Polyoxocations

Biocompatibility - surfaces, zeta potential

ELS

Polystyrene lattices with a carboxylated surface

Using zeta potential to assess protein adsorption to surfactant coated latex

Biomaterials - ceramics, composition

XRD

Bio-ceramic calcium phosphate coatings

X-ray diffraction in biomedical research - Chemical and biological analysis of bioceramic calcium phosphate coatings for medical purposes

Biomaterials - chemical phase composition, microstructure

XRD

Seashell

A shell exposed. A multi-dimensional investigation using X-ray diffraction and Computed Tomography

Biomaterials - polymers, molecular structure, intrinsic viscosity

SEC

Polylactic Acid (PLA)

Optimization of PLA/PLGA molecular weight and structure to suit final application requirements

Biomaterials - polymers, molecular weight, concentration

GPC

Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)

How switching mobile phases can improve your OMNISEC results

Biomaterials - silk fiber, size, hydrodynamic size

DLS

Spider silk fibers

Protein storage and stability analysis using the Zetasizer Nano ZSP

Biomaterials - silk fiber, zeta potential aggregation

ELS

Spider silk fibers

Predicting protein formulation stability

Cellular biology

Cellular biology research affects a wide range of study areas – such as:

  • Microbiology
  • Anti-microbial therapy
  • Virology
  • Physiology
  • Drug delivery
  • Immunology
  • Therapeutics
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Anatomy
  • Medicine

Here’s a selection of application notes and articles that relate to cellular biology research. Check them out to see how our solutions could support you!

Cellular Biology

Method

Sample

Application Note Title (Link)

Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) - size and size distribution

NTA

Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) labeled with gold nanoparticles

Adeno-Associated Virus titer and aggregation characterization

Bacteria and Viruses - size and size distribution

NTA

Bacteriophage (Staphylococcus aureus) and various virus particles

Total virus titer in minutes

Bacterial virulence factors - complex formation

SEC

ClpP2. ClpP2, ClpP2R213, CyaA

Characterization of Protein-Protein Interactions using triple detection size exclusion chromatography (SEC-TD)

Bacterial virulence factors - hydrodynamic changes

ELS

CyaA

Characterization of hydrodynamic changes upon cation-binding to proteins

Cell culture - protein stability

ELS

Bovine serum albumin (BSA)

Determining protein isoelectric point: A method comparison

Extracellular vesicles - model systems

NTA

Models for extracellular vesicles

NanoSight NTA Concentration Measurement Upgrade

Extracellular vesicles - size and concentration

NTA

Syncytiotrophoblast microvesicles (STBM), antibody (NDOG II)

Exosomes and Microvesicles: Concentration, sizing and phenotyping using NTA

Extracellular vesicles - size and concentration

NTA

Exosomes, urine, SKOV3 cells

Use of NanoSight Sample Assistant to increase throughput and reproducibility in the physical characterization of exosomes

Extracellular vesicles - stability

NTA

Lyophilized exosomes from human urine and plasma

Measuring Exosome Stability with Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis

Lipid Membranes - phase transitions

DSC

Lipid bilayer membranes

Using DSC to characterize thermotropic phase transitions in lipid bilayer membranes

Membrane proteins - synthesis

SEC

Bovine serum albumin (BSA) in n-Dodecyl-B-D-Maltoside (DDM)

Analysis of membrane protein by multi-detector SEC

MHC class I molecules - Amyloid formation

DLS

 

β-2-microglobulin (b2m)

Using Light Scattering to Track β-2-Microglobulin Amyloid Formation

Non-viral vectors - shape change

DLS

 

 

L-Lysine

The Use of Light Scattering to Study the Structure and charge of Dendritic Poly(L-Lysine)

Polycation DNA complexes - polydispersity

DLS

 

Polycation-DNA complexes

Using dynamic light scattering to investigate conformational changes

Silica nanoparticles - surface charge

DLS + ELS

Monodisperse silica particles, cationic polymer polyethyleneimine(PEI), succinic acid, glutaraldehyde + streptavidin, a fluorophore

Electrokinetic Characterization of Functionalized Silica Nanoparticles

Starburst Dendrimers - Zeta potential, size

DLS + ELS

Amino group + amidoamine units

Starburst Dendrimers Automated Isoelectric Point Measurements

Medicine and human health

Many biochemistry studies ultimately feed into medicine. In this context, ‘Medicine and Human Health’ covers the areas where biochemistry is applied in a practical medical and welfare setting – from nutrition science to toxicology and public health.

Below, we’ve put together some application notes and articles on human health and medical science research topics. Why not have a look and find out more about how we could support you with your medical sciences research?

Medicine and Human Health

Method

Sample

Application Note Title (link)

Cancer - diagnostics

DSC

Blood serum

Differential scanning calorimetry as a diagnostic tool for cancer patients

Cancer - treatments

ITC

Small molecule renin inhibitor

Binding thermodynamics of substituted diaminopyrimidine renin inhibitors

Immunosuppressants - stability, particle size distributions

DLS + ELS +LD

 

Cyclosporines,

Ophthalmic microemulsions: An orthogonal characterization strategy

Public Health Science - elemental concentrations

XRF

Traces of toxic elements (As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn)

Analysis of biological samples

Toxicology of nanoparticles - particle size

NTA

Human blood plasma, gold nanoparticles

Characterization of nanoparticle size and state in nanotoxicological and ecotoxicological studies using Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA)

Abbreviations explained

Our products and technologies are described on the Products pages. Below you can find a quick reference to the properties measured by our instruments, together with the measurement name and its abbreviation. Click on each method to find out more about it! 

Abbreviation

Method Name

Instrument(s)

Measured Property

DLS

Dynamic light scattering

Zetasizer

Molecular size, hydrodynamic radius RH,  particle size, size distribution, stability, concentration, agglomeration

ELS

Electrophoretic light scattering

Zetasizer

Zeta potential, particle charge, suspension stability, protein mobility

ITC

Iso-thermal calorimetry

MicroCal  ITC

Binding affinity, thermodynamics of molecular reactions in solution

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

Microcal DSC

Denaturing (unfolding) of large molecules, stability of macromolecules

IMG

Automated Morphological Imaging

Morphologi 4

Imaging of particles, automated shape and size measurement

MDRS

Morphologically directed Raman spectroscopy

Morphologi 4-ID

Imaging of particles, automated shape and size measurement, chemical identification and contaminant detection

LD

Laser diffraction

Mastersizer

Spraytec

Insitec

Parsum

Particle size, size distribution

NTA

Nanoparticle tracking analysis

NanoSight

Particle size, size distribution, and concentration

SEC or GPC

Size exclusion chromatography /

Gel permeation chromatography

OMNISEC

Molecular size, molecular weight, oligomeric state, polymer or protein size and molecular structure

SPE

Sample preparation by fusion

Le Neo

LeDoser

Eagon 2

The OxAdvanced

M4

rFusion

Fused Bead Sample preparation for XRF, Peroxide solution preparations for ICP, Flux weighing for beadmaking

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Ultra-violet / visible / near infra-red / short wave infra-red spectrometry

LabSpec

FieldSpec

TerraSpec

QualitySpec

Material identification and analysis, moisture, mineral, carbon content. Ground truthing for airborne and satellite spectroscopic techniques.

PFTNA

Pulsed fast thermal neutron activation

CNA

In-line elemental analysis

XRD-C

X-ray diffraction (crystallography)

Aeris

Empyrean

Molecular crystal structure refinement,

crystalline phase identification and quantification, crystalline to amorphous ratio, crystallite size analysis

XRD-M

X-ray diffraction (microstructure)

Empyrean

X’Pert3 MRD(XL)

Residual stress, texture

XRD-CT

X-ray absorption imaging by computed tomography

Empyrean

3D imaging of solids, porosity, and density

SAXS

Small-angle X-ray scattering

Empyrean

Nanoparticles, size, shape and structure

GISAXS

Glancing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering

Empyrean

Nanostructured thin films and surfaces

HR-XRD

High-resolution X-ray diffraction

Empyrean

X’Pert3 MRD(XL)

Thin-films and epitaxial multilayers, composition, strain, thickness, quality

XRR

X-ray reflectometry

Empyrean

X’Pert3 MRD(XL)

Thin films and surfaces, film thickness, surface and interface roughness

XRF

X-ray fluorescence

Epsilon

Zetium

Axios FAST

2830 ZT

Elemental composition, elemental concentration, trace elements, contaminant detection

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