Want to know how our analysis methods can support your energy, fuel, and automotive engineering research? Whether you’re a student, a researcher, or a professor, we’ve put together links to examples of our solutions in batteries, fluid dynamics, fossil fuels, fuel cells, and lubricants.

The materials and analytical equipment involved overlap with applications in Chemistry and Applied ChemistryMaterials Science and Engineering, and Geological Sciences, Minerals and Mining – so feel free to check those pages for more information! Method abbreviations are explained at the bottom of this page.

Batteries research

Battery technology is a ‘hot topic’ – and involves research in many areas. This research can cover everything from charge storage and transfer and the synthesis of new battery materials, to modeling and testing battery designs and processing and upscaling battery production. Below, we’ve put together a selection of typical examples of our battery research solutions for battery material measurement. Take a look to discover more!

Batteries Research

Method

Sample

Application Note Title (Link)

Battery manufacture - particle size and shape

MDRS

Carbon electrode materials, binder

The impact of electrode particle size and shape on battery slurry viscosity

Battery manufacture - particle size

LD

Carbon (milling)

On-line particle sizing of carbon for electrode production

Battery manufacture - particle size and shape

MDRS

Graphite particles

The Influence of Particle Shape on the Characteristics of Coating Films for Battery Electrodes

Battery manufacture - particle size and shape

MDRS

Graphite

Exploring the effect of carbon microstructure on lithium-ion battery performance

Battery materials - particle size analysis

LD

Lithium cobalt oxide and lithium-ion phosphate, Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide (EMD),

Characterization of Battery Materials using Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analysis

Battery technology - overview

various

The role of analytical technologies in optimizing lithium-ion battery materials

Analytical toolkit for the optimization of battery electrode materials - whitepaper

Battery technology - battery integrity

XRD-CT

Zn-MnO2 alkaline batteries

Computed tomography on alkaline batteries

Battery technology – in-operando crystal phase analysis

XRD

Batteries in pouch cells. LiNMC coated on Al (cathode), graphite coated on Cu

High-quality in operando X-ray diffraction analysis of pouch bag lithium-ion batteries

Fluid dynamics

Several areas of engineering involve studying fluids and sprays – for instance, gas and liquid injection are important features of engine design. Our droplet size analysis instruments can be used to test features such as nozzle design. Find out more below!

Fluid Dynamics

Method

Sample

Application Note Title (Link)

Fuel Injectors - droplet size

LD

Fuel sprays from different injectors

Characterization of fuel injectors using high speed laser diffraction droplet size measurements

Fossil fuels

As we navigate the transition away from fossil fuels, researchers are continuously exploring ways to use and re-use them more effectively. This can cover areas including:

  • Power engineering
  • Automotive engineering
  • Chemical and petrochemical engineering
  • Chemistry
  • Recycling
  • Environment
  • Mining
  • Minerals engineering


We’ve put together a few application examples of our fossil fuel research solutions – take a look to learn more!

Fossil Fuels

Method

Sample

Application Note Title (Link)

Biodiesel blends - concentration

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Biodiesel-diesel blends: Methyl esters of five different oils — soybean oil, canola oil, palm oil, waste cooling oil, and coconut oil, highway and off-road diesels

Predicting the Concentration and Specific Gravity of Biodiesel-Diesel Blends Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

Biofuel - elemental composition

XRF

Waste

Analysis of a wide range of alternative fuel materials using a single calibration method

Biofuels, mixtures - trace elements

XRF

Sulfur in fuels, biofuels, and mixtures

Zetium - Oil-Trace: Analysis of sulfur in fuels, biofuels and mixtures using a mineral oil calibration

Catalytic cracking - residual elements

XRF

Cl in fresh, regenerated, and spent alumina- supported catalysts

Zetium - The analysis of total chloride in alumina-supported catalysts by WD XRF according to UOP 979

Catalytic cracking - sample preparation

SPE

Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Catalysts - residue in petroleum: Ni, Va, Si, Al, Na, Ca,

Dissolution of Fuel Oil Using Borate Fusion for ICP-OES Analysis in Accordance with ASTM D 5184, IP377 and IP501

Coal - phase identification and quantification

XRD-C

Quartz(SiO2), kaolinite(Al2Si2O5(OH)4), calcite(CaCO3), dolomite(CaMg(CO3)2, Siderite(FeCO3), anatase(TiO2)

Analysis of coal and related materials by XRD

Coal - sample preparation for ICP

SPE

Coal, Coal Ash, Coal Fly Ash

Characterization of Coal, Coal Ash and Coal Fly Ash using Borate Fusion for ICP Analysis

Coal - elemental analysis

XRF

Na2O, MgO, Al2O3, SiO2, P2O5, S, K2O, CaO, TiO2, MnO, Fe2O3, SrO, and BaO in unashed coal samples

Analysis of inorganic major and minor compounds in un-ashed coal samples prepared as pressed powder

Diesel - trace elements

XRF

Silicon (Si), Sulphur (S), and Chlorine (Cl) in diesel

Accurate elemental analysis of low silicon, sulfur and chlorine content in petroleum products and automotive fuels

Gasoline - lead content

XRF

Lead in Gasoline

Zetium - Analysis of low concentrations of lead in gasoline according to ASTM D5059-07 test method C

Gasoline - nanobubbles

NTA

Hydrogen nanobubbles in gasoline

Nanobubble Applications and Characterization by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis

Gasoline - trace elements

XRF

Phosphorous in fuels

Zetium - Analysis of low-level phosphorus in gasoline

Gasoline and diesel – Low-level sulfur content

XRF

Sulfur, petroleum

Analysis of low-level sulfur in petroleum products in accordance with ISO 20884:11 and ASTM D2622-10

Gasoline and diesel - sulfur content

XRF

Sulfur in car fuels

EPA Tier 3 Compliant Analysis of Ultra Low Sulfur Fuels

Fuel cells

Fuel cell technology is a growing area. Lots of the current research around fuel cell materials lies within Inorganic Chemistry, so check out that page for more application examples. Otherwise, enjoy exploring the information on our fuel cell research solutions below!

Fuel Cells

Method

Sample

Application Note Title (Link)

Hydrogen storage materials - performance

XRD-C

Lanthanum pentanickel (LaNi5), Ammonia borane (NH3BH3)

High-pressure and high-temperature studies of hydrogen storage materials

Catalytic Ink for electrodes – crystallographic structure, particle size and agglomeration 

XRD-C, LD, DLS, ELS 

Pt nano particles supported in Carbon particles and agglomerates

Analysis of Catalytic Ink for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC’s)

Lubricants

The study of lubricants is important for automotive engineering, chemical and petrochemical engineering, chemistry, recycling, and the environment. For instance, studying used lubricants can be a diagnostic for wear in machine parts. Below, we’ve collected a few examples of how our analytical solutions can support lubricant research. Check them out to discover more!

Lubricants Research

Method

Sample

Application Note Title (Link)

Lubricants - wear metals content

XRF

Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, Ba, and Pb in unused and used lubricating oils

Oil-Trace: accurate elemental analysis of additives and wear metals in fresh and used lubrication oils

Lubricants- additives and wear metals content

XRF

Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, Ba, and Pb in unused and used lubricating oils

Analysis of additives and wear metals in used lubricating oils using Oil-Trace

Lubricants - additives content

XRF

Mg, P, S, Cl, Ca, Cu, Zn, and Ba in unused lubricating oil

Analysis of additives in unused lubricating oils according to ASTM D4927-10 and ASTM D6443-04 (2010)

Automotive oils - identification

XRF

Lubricating oils

Material identification by FingerPrint

Automotive oils - recycling

XRF

S, Cl in waste oil

Analysis of S and CI in waste oil using an Ag-anode X-ray tube

Oils - base fluids

GPC

Polyalfaolefins (PAO), (PAO6, PAO40, PAO100) in THF

Comparing multi-detector GPC and APC for polyalphaolefin analysis

Abbreviations explained

Our products and technologies are described on the Products pages. Below you can find a quick reference to the properties measured by our instruments, together with the measurement name and its abbreviation. Click on each method to find out more about it! 

Abbreviation

Method Name

Instrument(s)

Measured Property

DLS

Dynamic light scattering

Zetasizer

Molecular size, hydrodynamic radius RH,  particle size, size distribution, stability, concentration, agglomeration

ELS

Electrophoretic light scattering

Zetasizer

Zeta potential, particle charge, suspension stability, protein mobility

ITC

Iso-thermal calorimetry

MicroCal  ITC

Binding affinity, thermodynamics of molecular reactions in solution

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

Microcal DSC

Denaturing (unfolding) of large molecules, stability of macromolecules

IMG

Automated Morphological Imaging

Morphologi 4

Imaging of particles, automated shape and size measurement

MDRS

Morphologically directed Raman spectroscopy

Morphologi 4-ID

Imaging of particles, automated shape and size measurement, chemical identification and contaminant detection

LD

Laser diffraction

Mastersizer

Spraytec

Insitec

Parsum

Particle size, size distribution

NTA

Nanoparticle tracking analysis

NanoSight

Particle size, size distribution, and concentration

SEC or GPC

Size exclusion chromatography /

Gel permeation chromatography

OMNISEC

Molecular size, molecular weight, oligomeric state, polymer or protein size and molecular structure

SPE

Sample preparation by fusion

Le Neo

LeDoser

Eagon 2

The OxAdvanced

M4

rFusion

Fused Bead Sample preparation for XRF, Peroxide solution preparations for ICP, Flux weighing for beadmaking

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Ultra-violet / visible / near infra-red / short wave infra-red spectrometry

LabSpec

FieldSpec

TerraSpec

QualitySpec

Material identification and analysis, moisture, mineral, carbon content. Ground truthing for airborne and satellite spectroscopic techniques.

PFTNA

Pulsed fast thermal neutron activation

CNA

In-line elemental analysis

XRD-C

X-ray diffraction (crystallography)

Aeris

Empyrean

Molecular crystal structure refinement,

crystalline phase identification and quantification, crystalline to amorphous ratio, crystallite size analysis

XRD-M

X-ray diffraction (microstructure)

Empyrean

X’Pert3 MRD(XL)

Residual stress, texture

XRD-CT

X-ray absorption imaging by computed tomography

Empyrean

3D imaging of solids, porosity, and density

SAXS

Small-angle X-ray scattering

Empyrean

Nanoparticles, size, shape and structure

GISAXS

Glancing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering

Empyrean

Nanostructured thin films and surfaces

HR-XRD

High-resolution X-ray diffraction

Empyrean

X’Pert3 MRD(XL)

Thin-films and epitaxial multilayers, composition, strain, thickness, quality

XRR

X-ray reflectometry

Empyrean

X’Pert3 MRD(XL)

Thin films and surfaces, film thickness, surface and interface roughness

XRF

X-ray fluorescence

Epsilon

Zetium

Axios FAST

2830 ZT

Elemental composition, elemental concentration, trace elements, contaminant detection

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