Interested in improving your environmental and climate science knowledge with the help of our analytical solutions? Whether you’re a student, a researcher, or a professor, we’ve got a wide range of useful articles on the most relevant applications of our atmosphere, land, and water research solutions.

The materials researched and the analytical methods used in environmental and climate science research often overlap with Agriculture and Food Sciences, and Geological Sciences, Minerals, and Mining, so you may also find useful information on those pages. The method abbreviations are explained at the bottom of this page. Enjoy exploring!

The atmosphere

Through research in meteorology, pollution, and climate change, we’re always studying the atmosphere. Here are just a few ways we can make new discoveries in atmospheric sciences. A big part of investigating our atmosphere also includes calibrating for different atmospheric conditions. Take a look at our application examples below to find out more!

The Atmosphere

Method

Sample/Subject

Application Note Title (Link)

Clouds radiative properties - calibration of spectra

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Cloud and surface radiative properties

Surface Bidirectional Reflectance Functions Derived from CERES Helicopter Data Over the Arm Southern Great Plains Site

Night-time lights - calibration of spectra

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Night-time light using a Nightsat sensor

Spectral Signatures of Night-time Lights

Particles, ash - automated imaging

Imaging

Volcanic ash

Assessing the abrasivity of volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökulll volcano eruption using the Morphologi G3

Particles, pollution - automated imaging

Imaging

1 ml of a 2000 particles/ml counting standard (Thermo Scientific Ezy-cal lot 37088) 

Particle characterization and counting on filter membranes using the Morphologi G3 automated image analysis system

Particles, pollution - elemental analysis

XRF

EPA method IO-3.3 for 55 elements

Elemental analysis of air filters according to US EPA method IO-3.3

Particles, pollution - elemental analysis

XRF

As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn in air

Ambient air monitoring: analysis of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn as particulates on air filters

Solar spectral energy - calibration of spectra

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Solar Spectral Energy

Measuring Solar Spectral Energy Application Note

Land

With the demands on land constantly increasing, it’s more important than ever to study land use, land erosion, and soil properties, and to map variations in biology and vegetation. To find out more about investigating mineral deposits, check out Geological Sciences, Minerals, and Mining. Land researchers can use analytical instruments to calibrate and validate airborne satellite images and carry out ground- and lab-based experiments. Take a look below to find out more about our land research solutions!

Land

Method

Sample/Subject

Application Note Title (Link)

Change of use and invasive species - calibration of airborne sensor

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Land-use change and invasive species

Radiometric Calibration Concept of Imaging Spectrometers for a Long-Term Ecological Remote Sensing Project

Earth from space - Calibration of spectra

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Earth surface

Non-imaging Airborne Spectroscopy for Calibrating Satellite Imagery

Earth from the air - calibration of spectra

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Calibrations or radiance spectra at Ivanpah Playa, California, and Lake Mead, Nevada

The MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) — A New Instrument for Earth Science Studies

Soil - lab-based measurement of mineralogy and total carbon

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Soil carbon, soil minerals

Measurement of Soil Mineralogy and Total Carbon Using NIR

Soil - organic carbon content

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Soil Organic Carbon (SOC)

Analysis of Soil Organic Carbon in Soil Samples using an ASD NIR Spectrometer

Vegetation - review of remote sensing methods

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Review article of land-air mapping

Scaling Spectroscopic Approaches – From Leaf Albedo to Ecosystems Mapping

Water

From Himalayan Snow to our coastal waters, we have a keen interest in water as a precious life-giving natural resource. We study water treatment for human consumption, as well as how water becomes polluted and the impact water has on our environment. Check out our application notes below to find out more about our water research solutions!

Water

Method

Sample

Application Note Title (Link)

Drinking water - particle content

NTA

Drinking water before and after filtration

Monitoring Microfiltration Processes for Water Treatment

Fire protection, water mists - particle size

LD

Water, mist systems/surfactants

Characterizing fire suppression systems using the Malvern Spraytec

Wastewater treatment - coagulation

ELS

Wastewater, coagulant

Real-time data enables spot-on coagulant dosing - article

Water quality - chlorophyll, phosphorous, and turbidity

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Water quality parameters such as chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and total phosphorus 

Coupling Hyperspectral Remote Sensing with Field Spectrometry to Monitor Inland Water Quality Parameters

Water treatment - clarification control

ELS

Severn-Trent water treatment

Moving towards automated clarification control in water treatment: The industrial benefits of online zeta potential measurement – white paper

Water treatment - flocculation

ELS

Bentonite (aluminum-silicate clay particles /water model system + cationic flocculant (alum))

Optimization of Water Treatment using Zeta Potential

Water treatment - nanoparticles 

NTA

Researching the toxicity and environmental impact of nanoparticles

Assessing Nanoparticle Toxicity in Wastewater using Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis - Whitepaper

Water treatment - process control

ELS

Wastewater, treated water

The role of zeta potential in water treatment process control

Water treatment - removal of toxins

ELS

RNIP (reactive nano iron particles) to remove toxic chlorinated compounds (i.e. trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethene (PCE), chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane)

Water Remediation: Reactive Nano-Iron Particles

Water treatment - turbidity simulations

ELS

Intralipid samples to simulate turbidity

Concentration limits for zeta potential measurements in the Zetasizer Nano

Abbreviations explained

Our products and technologies are described on the Products pages. Below you can find a quick reference to the properties measured by our instruments, together with the measurement name and its abbreviation. Click on each method to find out more about it! 

Abbreviation

Method Name

Instrument(s)

Measured Property

DLS

Dynamic light scattering

Zetasizer

Molecular size, hydrodynamic radius RH,  particle size, size distribution, stability, concentration, agglomeration

ELS

Electrophoretic light scattering

Zetasizer

Zeta potential, particle charge, suspension stability, protein mobility

ITC

Iso-thermal calorimetry

MicroCal  ITC

Binding affinity, thermodynamics of molecular reactions in solution

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

Microcal DSC

Denaturing (unfolding) of large molecules, stability of macromolecules

IMG

Automated Morphological Imaging

Morphologi 4

Imaging of particles, automated shape and size measurement

MDRS

Morphologically directed Raman spectroscopy

Morphologi 4-ID

Imaging of particles, automated shape and size measurement, chemical identification and contaminant detection

LD

Laser diffraction

Mastersizer

Spraytec

Insitec

Parsum

Particle size, size distribution

NTA

Nanoparticle tracking analysis

NanoSight

Particle size, size distribution, and concentration

SEC or GPC

Size exclusion chromatography /

Gel permeation chromatography

OMNISEC

Molecular size, molecular weight, oligomeric state, polymer or protein size and molecular structure

SPE

Sample preparation by fusion

Le Neo

LeDoser

Eagon 2

The OxAdvanced

M4

rFusion

Fused Bead Sample preparation for XRF, Peroxide solution preparations for ICP, Flux weighing for beadmaking

UV/Vis/NIR/ SWIR

Ultra-violet / visible / near infra-red / short wave infra-red spectrometry

LabSpec

FieldSpec

TerraSpec

QualitySpec

Material identification and analysis, moisture, mineral, carbon content. Ground truthing for airborne and satellite spectroscopic techniques.

PFTNA

Pulsed fast thermal neutron activation

CNA

In-line elemental analysis

XRD-C

X-ray diffraction (crystallography)

Aeris

Empyrean

Molecular crystal structure refinement,

crystalline phase identification and quantification, crystalline to amorphous ratio, crystallite size analysis

XRD-M

X-ray diffraction (microstructure)

Empyrean

X’Pert3 MRD(XL)

Residual stress, texture

XRD-CT

X-ray absorption imaging by computed tomography

Empyrean

3D imaging of solids, porosity, and density

SAXS

Small-angle X-ray scattering

Empyrean

Nanoparticles, size, shape and structure

GISAXS

Glancing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering

Empyrean

Nanostructured thin films and surfaces

HR-XRD

High-resolution X-ray diffraction

Empyrean

X’Pert3 MRD(XL)

Thin-films and epitaxial multilayers, composition, strain, thickness, quality

XRR

X-ray reflectometry

Empyrean

X’Pert3 MRD(XL)

Thin films and surfaces, film thickness, surface and interface roughness

XRF

X-ray fluorescence

Epsilon

Zetium

Axios FAST

2830 ZT

Elemental composition, elemental concentration, trace elements, contaminant detection

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